A score (Italian partitura " classification ") is an under -by-side compilation of all the individual parts of a composition or an arrangement so that the conductor can overlook the musical events at a glance. Scores are also used to store music reproducible.
The "classical" orchestral score includes from top to bottom the voices of:
- Woodwind player Flute (Fl)
- Oboe (Ob)
- Clarinets ( Cl, Cl ital. )
- Horns ( Hrn, ital cor)
- Trumpets (Trp, Italian Tbe )
- Trombones (Pos, Italian Trb )
- Tubes ( TBA )
- With definite pitch: (timpani, celesta, glockenspiel, xylophone, etc.)
- With indefinite pitch: ( drums, cymbals, triangle, etc.)
- Violin ( Vl) - almost always divided into first and second
- Viola (Italian Va)
- Cello (Vc )
- Bass ( Kb, Italian Cb)
In scores of church music is the chorus (if available) frequently between the strings (violins, violas ) and the continuo (organ, cello, bassoon, double bass).
Note: Because Italian is considered as an international language of music, the instrumental designations or abbreviations are often given in Italian.
One score is usually also preceded by the exact composition of the plant. This can as it happens in catalogs or lists of works are abbreviated with a key, which requires the knowledge of the score scheme. So does 3333/4321/Pk/-/Str:
- Per 3 woodwinds
- 4 Horns
- 3 Trumpets
- 2 Trombones
- A tuba
- No harp
The three major sections of the orchestra (woodwind / brass / strings) are listed under each other and connected by a square bracket at the start of the line. Different types or layers of an instrument (eg, oboe and English horn, bassoon and contrabassoon ) are connected by the curly Akkoladenklammer. Solo instruments, vocal soloists or choir are listed on the strings, in older scores between violas and cellos. This notation method comes from the practice of secco recitative in which the harpsichord in the continuo often took over the management of the ensemble.
The three major groups ( woodwinds, brass, strings) have sorted themselves on the pitch. The only exception here make the horns, which actually sound between trumpets and trombones. Due to their phonetic proximity to the woodwind one hand, and the frequent rhythmic coupling of " hard" sheet ( trumpets and trombones ) with timpani and percussion on the other hand, this placement offers.
Instruments that do not belong to the root of the classical symphony orchestra are assigned to their respective groups and sorted according to pitch. For example, are listed in the woodwinds below the clarinets, as they are like these blown by a single reed saxophone.
Some composers vary in places, the arrangement of the instruments depending on the instrumentation of the relevant passage: So you can see the horns often found in the Tristan score of Wagner between clarinets and bassoons. This practice is, however, rather rare.
The score notes next to the musical text and all instructions such as tempo, articulation, technique and expression.
For the print image of scores on the musical history of time, there are two basic possibilities. For works with smaller ensembles often all instruments over the entire course of the song be swept displayed in its own grading system, pause even if tools over a longer period. This results in a very uniform, easy to over -looking printed image.
For works with larger orchestra other hand, are usually listed for reasons of space only the actually each playing instruments. The number of staves per Accolade is then variable so that have space on some pages of the score just a Accolade, on other two or more accolades. Moving to a new Accolade is marked by two slashes. On the first page of the score of a musical piece or movement are often - but not always - recorded all the instruments occurring. So if on the first page of the score also voices are, for the only breaks are listed, so this page is most likely the entire cast again. If an instrumentalist but throughout the piece to change his instrument, a flutist eg times also to play the piccolo, so this is going at this point from the score start out, but is only recorded when the change occurs.
To save space in scores are also usually two (or more) similar instrument voices (eg, two flutes, two trumpets ) summarized in a rating system. The course of the individual voices can be illustrated by the notes are each assigned by pointing upward or downward stems an instrument. If both instruments play the same, this is dictated by the instruction a 2, or the notes will get both an upward as well as a downward-pointing neck.
Types of score
- The score in large format ( occasionally scroll at a faster bound than ring binder ), which serves the conductor for the performance of the work
- The study score in book format to read and study a composition
- Often creates the short score that summarizes the contents of the score in a few staves of composers as a precursor of the fully elaborated score
- The Hörpartitur ( or reading score), a simplified, often graphically specially equipped form which facilitates the inexperienced comprehension
- The choral score that contains at choral works with orchestra, the voices of the choir ( SATB) in score order, but no other instrumental or solo voices ( in contrast to most simply speaks at the sheet music for pure choral works a cappella by Score)
- The piano reduction, which reduces the cast an orchestral work on the two-handed piano, as well as for stages or choral and orchestral forces contains complete vocal parts ( solo and choral ) and is used primarily in rehearsals