Teacher education

Teacher training is institutionalized guide for the teaching profession in universities and teacher training institutions. In Germany, it is the responsibility of the countries and is different in different countries, although within specified limits. The constitutional principle of freedom of movement as well as practical considerations lead to a certain match. Principles for the mutual recognition of teacher education in all countries are determined by the Standing Conference of the Ministers. The teacher training is in addition to the training and continuing teacher education.

  • 2.1 History of Teacher Education
  • 2.2 Current discussion


The teacher training takes place in Germany generally take place in two phases. The first phase is either studying at a university or equivalent institution, in a specialized high school (teachers in the upscale service at vocational schools ) or Vocational Training ( Technical Teachers in vocational schools). In the second phase, the training takes place on a teacher training college or seminary school and at a school the corresponding direction. There are also to teach directly in individual countries the opportunity with a pure professional studies, ie without teacher training, to complete the preparatory service or after a course of study. Another possibility is the direct training in a seminar ( in Baden -Württemberg and Bavaria ).

Career education with higher education

Special training courses there are to teaching careers

  • Primary schools ( alone or together with the main primary schools ),
  • Secondary schools (partly together with secondary schools at the secondary level I)
  • High schools (secondary level I and II),
  • Vocational schools ( upper secondary education),
  • Special or special schools.

Teacher education programs align themselves to the divided school system, with the particularity that the training of teachers at primary and secondary schools represented are no longer actually existing elementary school.

The training includes a course of study usually two subjects at a university or teacher training college (only in Baden- Württemberg for primary, junior, intermediate and special education ), art school or sports high school, to varying degrees and weighting each subject didactics, general education science and some areas of psychology (eg, developmental psychology ). The study focus is the teacher for secondary schools and vocational schools on the academic component. The other teaching careers of educational science content occupies a broader space and weighs partially.

The subject didactics can be integrated into the bins, because it is part of the discipline under epistemological aspects. However, many academic disciplines that view have not yet opened, so that subject didactics is still understood as a methodological doctrine of the school. Therefore, specialized academic and didactic events usually are sold separately.

In most countries (eg North Rhine -Westphalia and Mecklenburg -Western Pomerania) are already required during the student internship at schools, increasingly an entire semester. This is now consensus in the Standing Conference to determine the vocational aptitude earlier than before. In Mecklenburg- Vorpommern these are, for example, a social internship, an orientation internship ( approximately four weeks in a country other than the selected type of school ) and a major internship ( four weeks in selected school type). The practical semester is considered part as to existing test performance (eg in Baden- Württemberg).

The First State Exam completed the university teaching degree, but does not represent a professional degree, the state exam is now replaced in some countries by the degree of Master of Education. Foreign teacher graduates from the European Union are recognized in principle.

This is followed by the preparatory service concludes ( colloquially referred to as a clerkship, although, strictly speaking, for the higher service applies ) in teacher training college and school, which is completed with the second state examination. For teachers at vocational schools and previous work experience or work experience is required for the vocational subjects in general; partly this is a prerequisite for general subjects. Only after successful completion of the preparatory service, the professional qualification is achieved. With the second exam the " Assessor of the Magisterium " or Studienassessor is usually awarded. This one-to two -year preparation service will be an opportunity in advance of the profession to develop in a field of advice from this qualified professional colleagues a professional habitus and look at him the same critical. It is not only the practice go to professional routines, but even more to learn about this to check their suitability, acceptability, appropriateness and professional relevance.

Some years there was at the Universities of Oldenburg and Bremen, the pilot single-phase teacher education, which combined both parts. This was also the case in the GDR, where for the completion graduate teachers. These financial statements have been assimilated by the KMK with the 2nd state, ie it a corresponding classification in the public service.

For special education, the training includes a course of study of two special educational disciplines (Bayern a field of study, the second is an optional additional qualification ) from a university or teacher training college and possibly two subjects. In addition, there are educational science shares, to varying degrees and weighting ( eg general special education, general education science and outs of psychology, such as developmental psychology ).

In the two special education courses are to be distinguished: the " basic training " and " consecutive training ". At the undergraduate training studies from the beginning takes place focused on the special needs but hot air. In the consecutive training, however, is a postgraduate course that is connected to a successful study for a teaching position. Both types have advantages and disadvantages, the discussion seems mainly to speak for the consecutive training lately with regard to the efforts to integrate people with disabilities into the regular school system, however, causes higher cost.

Graduates are trained as a teacher, first for the appropriate type of school and the learned subjects. However, it is quite common that in related disciplines (eg, history, civics, geography ) and, especially in shortage subjects, is even taught fachfremd. In part, this happens also to prevent unfavorable educational Einstundenfächer at a teacher. It is crucial that each acquired Magisterium, not the studied subject. In primary schools, and partly also to elementary and secondary schools but is an interdisciplinary instruction, and therefore also often a specialized foreign instruction by the teacher, now the rule.

Tests, teacher training in Germany - as in many international practice - to not geared types of schools, but to the grades ( levels of teacher training ), have only partially (eg, North Rhine -Westphalia and Bremen) enforced, although it called the " Frankenthaler decisions " of the Standing Conference (1970 ) was a unanimous declaration of intent of all ( old ) Counties. There is no empirical evidence that the levels of teacher education have not been successful. Some voices lead to the failure rather back on political reservations against the abolition of the existing in Germany differentiated school system. The change in other teaching positions is usually, especially in stage change, appropriate coursework ahead.

Career education without higher education

A separate group of teachers are the teachers for professional practice / technical teachers at vocational schools dar. This type of teacher is mainly used for both practical and used to a limited extent, technological training and required for obtaining his teaching certificate therefore not an academic study, but typically a master - or technician degree in the relevant subject area. So, for example, teach workshop teachers in the industrial and technical education, shorthand and word processing teacher in economics and management, Housekeeping and handwork teacher in home economics schools. The training, examinations and career regulations for this group of teachers are very different in different countries. As a requirement is usually the medium of education and several years of professional experience, and requires the master or technician check in the rule. Making in many countries as well as a preparatory service. In some countries, no adjustment is made as a civil servant.

Special training paths

Newcomers and beginners page

In particular shortage of skilled labor, access to the teaching profession can be opened in time and technically limited and over again for other professional groups without first state exam. How can board with several years of practical experience in the IT field directly without teacher training in the clerkship or even directly without training in the teaching profession, for example, in teacher shortage in specialized vocational information processing graduates. Once the need for more teachers in the subjects in question can be covered with student teachers again, this access is closed.

The terms lateral entrants and career changers are used differently depending on the country, not even both forms are offered.

One form is that the candidates will be placed on the same terms as career candidates into the clerkship, the respective university examination ( diploma or master) is thus equivalent to the first state exam. The second state exam will be taken under the same conditions and enables the same extent as in career applicants. It provides the same opportunities for development and exchange opportunities in other countries, as different career qualification was acquired.

In the second possible form, one first works as a staff instructor for two to three years with the educational -occupational qualification at reduced hours and often full salary. A tenure is sometimes not possible partly by a further year probation as an employee. The opportunities for advancement are partly restricted. A change of state is difficult due to the lack of career qualification. Candidates have to consider whether to compensate for the ( almost) full salary from the beginning the disadvantages of the side entrance.

Bavarian trainee program

In Bavaria existed in the school year 2010/11 continues to be a trainee program with the physicist, mathematician and graduate engineers ( Univ.) were in the fields of mechanical and electrical engineering formed in a two-year program for teachers at vocational high schools in the lateral entry. Also statements of foreign universities were " possible and welcome ." The trainees teach in the first year 12 teaching hours and the second 18 hours per week and are accompanied in this time of ever a " talent development " per school subject in school life and cared for. In addition, the trainees how trainees are trained at a National Study Seminar in didactics, pedagogy, psychology and law school / school customer. This is an employment contract, the transfer into the civil service is possible if the conditions to the age of 45, but not promised. The trainees had to but commit to at least five years in the space provided for them state or local school to work or to reimburse the training costs in whole or in part.

Subject teacher education in Baden -Württemberg and Bavaria

In Baden- Württemberg there is a possibility without studying to complete a training course for specialist teachers of musical and technical subjects. The training takes place the teacher training seminars Karlsruhe, Kirchheim / Teck and Schwäbisch Gmünd. The training takes place in fine arts or music or sport and utility / Textiles works with business administration or engineering with business studies and in the subjects pedagogy, educational psychology, school law, information and communication technologies and in profile subject of the seminar. Requirement is a high-school diploma or the Fachschulreife, vocational training or a degree of vocational colleges of at least two years' duration, a the Magisterium relevant year of professional or business practice and a passed the entrance exam. The aptitude test consists of a section on General Education and text work and a technical part (not in sports ) consists of a written and practical exam. The setting is usually a civil servant status revoked as a teacher candidate. The preparatory service lasts two years. The training classes at the training schools found in blocks instead, it is increasingly taught independently by the candidate. Two weeks of training lessons will take place at a special school. The subject teachers can theoretically be used on all types of schools, but mostly they come at primary, junior, intermediate and community schools, special schools are less likely to be used. For special schools there is a special subject teacher education. Graduates will be ( official title subject teacher ) is set as officials with the scope for promotion to technical secondary teachers.

In Bavaria, the training at the state institutions for the training of specialist teachers in Augsburg or Bayreuth takes place. The training must be completed in the subjects of Communication Technology, Technical Drawing, plants and either art education or sports. Requirement is a medium degree and passing a suitability test. The training lasts three years at the seminary and a further year at a school and is not paid.

History and current situation in Germany

History of teacher training

Public discussions on reform of teacher education took place mainly in social crises. Until 1918, teacher training for the high school teacher was completely different at universities and elementary school teachers at teacher training. Only in the Weimar Republic of the claim caused the Weimar Constitution (Art. 143) the academic training of elementary school teachers in Prussia and some other countries through the introduction of teacher training colleges (as of 1925). Bavaria and Württemberg did not follow the until after the Second World War. During the Nazi dictatorship, the teacher training colleges were again abolished and replaced by the School of Teacher Education and Teacher Education Institutions 1941.

After the Second World War, the teacher training remained in West Germany further separated between universities and newly established and unified teacher education. In connection with the expansion of education in the 1960s, the training was revalued at teacher training colleges that were at the beginning of the 1980s, integrated into the universities, except in Baden- Württemberg for the primary and secondary school, junior high school and special education. In the GDR, the training of teachers for primary level teachers was carried out at institutes of Teacher Education ( Prerequisite: high school ) and high school teachers (Grades 6 to 10, Prerequisites: High School ) at teacher training institutions and for high school teachers up to class 12 ( Prerequisite: High School ) at Teacher Training Colleges and Universities.

Current discussion

Around 2000 began again a lively public debate about teacher education, to which almost all social groups - employers and trade unions, associations, political parties, journalists and others - their interest-driven and often completely opposite contributors. The Union for Education and Science has created a chronological overview of the reform debate. Numerous reports on teacher training, partly appointed by the respective state governments, some presented in their own interests and on their own initiative, determine to be the discussion. This is closely linked to a restricted practice concept that is found in many manifestations and mainly aimed at the university teacher training program to a process of initiation into professional routines - to make, or at least to an accompaniment of such a practice in the sense of a " dual education " (cf. this. Press Releases employers President Dieter Hundt, or the President of the German Chamber of Industry and Commerce Chambers of Ludwig Georg Braun ).

The KMK 2000 supported a model of the teaching profession and decided in 2004 uniform training standards for the education sciences and 2008 for the compartments of teacher education, which are binding on the forming universities. Because increasingly takes an aggressive poaching of teachers from other countries to get that " Stralsund Declaration" of 2009 stated that each state must create a need for comprehensive training capacity.

The previously confusing discussion brings together three strands:


The nachuniversitäre training of secondary school teachers takes place in Austria in a teaching practice. Compulsory school teachers are trained at teacher training colleges.