Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission

The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission ( TRMM ) is a joint mission of NASA and the Japanese space agency JAXA, with the aim to monitor the rainfall in the tropics and study. TRMM is part of the Earth Observing System, a long-term research program of NASA. The satellite was launched from the Tanegashima Space Center in Tanegashima, Japan on 27 November 1997.

Instruments aboard TRMM

Precipitation Radar (PR )

The Precipitation Radar (English for precipitation radar ) is the first instrument aboard an earth satellite that is able to create three-dimensional maps of storm structures. The measurements provide information about the intensity, distribution and type of rain, the storm depth and the height at which the snow turns into rain. Based on these measured values ​​estimates the temperature of the atmosphere at different levels, for example, in the preparation of more accurate models of the global atmosphere circulation useful.

TRMM Microwave Imager ( TMI)

The TRMM Microwave Imager is a passive microwave sensor, whose job it is to record large amounts of information on the precipitate on a wide area under the satellite. For this purpose, the amount of microwaves that are emitted every minute of the earth and its atmosphere are recorded. This allows the instrument, both the amount of water vapor and water in clouds, and the intensity of the precipitate to determine. The TRMM Microwave Imager is a relatively small instrument, and also comes with little energy. Given the wealth of information that provides this instrument on precipitation, it is one of the main instruments on board the satellite.

Visible and Infrared Scanner ( VIRS )

The Visible and Infrared Scanner (English for scanner for visible light and infrared radiation) is one of the three instruments whose task is to measure the rainfall. The instrument takes the precipitate true in a very indirect way. VIR records the output from the earth radiation in five different spectra of the visible light range to the infrared radiation ( 0.63 to 12 microns). The intensity of the radiation in the various spectra it possible to determine the source brightness (visible light and near-infrared ) and the temperature ( IR ).

Clouds and the Earth 's Radiant Energy System ( CERES )

The instrument CERES (English for Radiation Energy System of the clouds and the earth ) measures the energy in the uppermost regions of the atmosphere, and also estimates the energy level within the atmosphere and at the surface. With the aid of the other instruments on board the satellite CERES determines the cloud properties, including the degree of coverage, the height, density and size of the cloud particles. All of these measuring career are crucial for understanding the entire climate system of the Earth and improve the models for climate prediction.

Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS )

The Lightning Imaging Sensor (English for sensor for imaging of lightning ) is a small instrument that can detect and locate lightning over the tropical regions. The device is a combination of optical and electrical elements. The field of view of the sensor makes it possible to observe a point on earth, or a cloud for 80 seconds, which is sufficient to estimate the number of flashes. These values ​​indicate the researchers, if the storm is still growing or already subsides.