It was created in 1906 as an organization of peasants' deputies of the First Duma. They demanded the government by the people ( without express themselves closer to the Czarist rule ), universal suffrage, democratic freedoms and the surrender of the lands, including the landlord, to the farmers as well as the nationalization of all the land except the peasant plots and private land, as far as could not be processed by its owner himself.

In this program they called for the establishment of a democratic republic and the convening of the Russian Constituent Assembly and represented the principle of national self-determination, while maintaining national unity. In its decisions on the agrarian question they remained at previous positions.