United Arab Republic
Al - al - ʿ Dschumhūriyya arabiyya al - mma United Arab Republic
The existing 1958 to 1961 United Arab Republic (UAR; Arab الجمهورية العربية المتحدة, DMG al - al - ʿ Ǧumhūrīya Arabiya al - Muttahida ) was a union of the Arab states of Egypt and Syria.
The Union was founded on 1 February 1958. You joined on 8 March 1958, the Kingdom of Yemen ( North Yemen ) in a loose confederation of, it traded under the name United Arab States.
The Union broke up with the exit of Syria on September 28, 1961, North Yemen in December 1961. Egypt retained the name United Arab Republic to the end until the year 1972.
After the founding of the Republic of Egypt in 1952, Gamal Abdel Nasser pursued a policy of the concentration of all the Arab countries ( Pan-Arabism ). The aim of this policy was the suppression of the American, British and French influence in the Middle East and North Africa. This contrasted with the conservative monarchies of Saudi Arabia, Iraq and Jordan. Only Syria formed an alliance with Egypt.
With the start of 1958 Syria urged a union treaty, which came into being on 1 February. Reason for urging the Syrian were the threats of war in Turkey, after it had already come in December 1957 heavy fighting along their common border. Syria also felt by the Baghdad Pact threat. Egypt, which was isolated internationally since the Suez crisis, saw the unification of the two countries as a first step towards the unification of all Arab states.
Consequences in the Arab States
As a result of these developments included Iraq and Jordan on February 22, 1958 an agreement on the unification of the two countries from. The Arab Federation, however, was dissolved as a result of the overthrow of the Iraqi monarchy on August 2, 1958 again. Great Britain sent air forces to Jordan in order to prevent a similar development. Despite the upheaval, the new Iraqi President Abd al - Karim Qasim refused the VAR join. In Lebanon broke out fierce fighting between pro-Western and pan-Arab militias. By engagement of the United States, the conflict is first terminated.
Dissolution of the Union
In the Union there was soon a number of differences. The Egyptians nationalized all active in Syria firms and banks and certain Cairo as its capital. Almost the entire government consisted of Egyptians. In Syria, we felt cheated and betrayed. On September 27, 1961, the army staged a coup in Syria and the Union declared on the next day for dissolved. Syria was again renamed in Syrian Arab Republic, Egypt bore the name United Arab Republic until 1972 on. The United Arab Republic in 1963 was an attempt to unite Egypt and Syria again with the involvement of Iraq.