Near East

The Middle East is a geographical term that is now generally used for the Arab countries of the Near East and Israel. In particular, the region of the Fertile Crescent and the Arabian Peninsula are part of the Middle East. Also Cyprus, Turkey are often ( partially only Anatolia) to be counted, Egypt and Iran.

Historically, the term referred to " Middle East" since the 19th century, the area of the Ottoman Empire outside Europe.

The German term Middle East overlaps with the English term Middle East, but is not the same as geographically with him ( see below).


The term Middle East is marked by a European perspective. The countries of the Middle East are from the "West" as seen in the " East."

In German, a distinction is made between the Middle East, the Middle East ( South Asia, Afghanistan and often Iran) and the Far East. Confusion sometimes that the region in English (Middle East ) and is referred to in many Middle Eastern languages ​​as Middle East, and in particular Arab al- Sharq al الشرق الأوسط - Awsat, DMG aš šarqu - l - Awsat, Hebrew המזרח התיכון haMizrach haTichon, Turkish Orta Dogu, Kurdish and Persian rojhilata Navin خاورمیانه. The G8 definition of Middle East relates even the whole of North Africa ( Mediterranean countries ) with a.

In English, in addition to the Middle East, the term Near East there (literally, the Middle East), which originally corresponded to the historical Middle East - term. The British term Near East was from about 1850 to the end of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans and the Ottoman Empire without Iran - and thus also for parts of the Middle East - used. Middle East at that time designated the area from Iran to Afghanistan and the Caucasus to Central Asia. If he is still in use today, then not exactly defined meaning. Many use it synonymously with "Middle East ", the American dictionary Merriam Webster defines it as the countries in West Asia and North Africa from Libya to Afghanistan, and archaeologists, geographers and historians understand most notably Anatolia, the Levant and Mesopotamia.

Orient, Middle East

In a more religious- cultural sense most Orient or East, covering the Middle and Near East is used in political or geographical sense; on the Middle East is blurred according to the Middle East. The world of the Orient employed many European poets and writers, see, for example, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's " West-Eastern Divan", Hermann Hesse's novel " Journey to the East " or the adventurous Oriental tales of Hermann von Pueckler, the bestsellers were and narrative figure of Munchausen led. The Orient is culturally and historically immoral accumulation of opposite attributions and fantastic performances in the mirror image of Western culture. One can say that the Orient in this religious- cultural-historical sense, that is what the West, the West, is not.

Overview of States, Territories and Regions