A W- motor is a combustion engine having three cylinder rows ( with the same opening angles smaller than 90 ° ) are arranged in the shape of a "W", which - are housed in the same motor's multi - cylinder similar to the V-type engine can. The classic by the motor theory W motor has three rows of cylinders (similar to the V- engine with two cylinder banks also called Y- motor), while that of Volkswagen AG as the "W" designated motor design of four rows of cylinders having different opening angles and thus after engine teaching a double V engine or more specifically a double - VR engine (here with a crankshaft ) is.
A disadvantage is the direct vicinity of the hot exhaust system of the central bank of cylinders with fuel- carrying parts of the intake one of the outer cylinder banks. The forces of the bulb are passed through the connecting rod without intermediate storage on a single Hubkurbel in W motor; this makes the connecting rod more susceptible to fatigue failure and stability of large crankshaft cross sections are needed.
Use of W engines
Classic W motor ( Y Motor )
Example of a classical W engine with three banks of cylinders at the same angle (Y- engine ) is the motorcycle racing engine of the French motorcycle manufacturer Alcyon of 1904. With him, the three cylinders had an angle of 45 ° to each other. Alessandro Anzani was driving a machine with this unusual engine.
- The only W engines from Volkswagen group, which should be correctly referred to as W engines, are of the Audi W12 supercar prototype Avus quattro (1991 ) and the W18 engine in the Bugatti Chiron 18.3 prototype ( 1999). All current designated " W" engines have four rows of cylinders and are of the double -V design.
- Other examples of W - motors ( Y ) engines are the zwölfzylindrige Napier Lion, the W18 engines Isotta Fraschini ( Asso 750 and Asso 1000 ) and of CRM Motori Marini Spa ( 18 D / SS BR -2 with 40 ° / 40 ° cylinder bank angles ) and the W12 formula 1 motor by Guy Nègre. The Lion engines gained some fame through their use in racing airplanes ( Supermarine S.5 Schneider Trophy in ), and in breaking cars (including by Malcolm Campbell).
- The Swede Thomas Johansson has developed a W9 engine with 2977 cc capacity as part of his Master thesis in 2006. The three banks of cylinders are arranged at an angle 60 ° -0 ° -60 °. With a weight of 118 kg of the engine up to 387 kW ( 526 hp) to afford.
- In Rumpler Tropfenwagen at the beginning of the 1920s, initially a D6 engine was built in which the six cylinders were placed in the W with 60 ° opening angle and paired cast.
- In the 1950s, Mitsubishi built under the designation W24 - WZ a 24-cylinder W two-stroke diesel engine as an attempt for speedboats. The engine developed 2200 kW ( 2991 hp) at 1600 revolutions / minute.
- The small French company Moteurs Guy Nègre ( MGN ) designed the end of the 1980s, a 3.5-liter 60 ° / 60 ° W12 engine for use in Formula 1 The engine was equipped with three rows of cylinders, each with four cylinders equipped had no conventional valves and should afford 630 hp at 15,000 revolutions per minute. The project was announced in early 1989, is set after a few successful test runs in a chassis AGS JH22 and because of financial and technical problems, but again, without also being driven only one kilometer race. Later, the MGN W12 ( Moteurs Guy Nègre ) was used in a Norma - M6 sports car. Guy Nègre has now developed an air motor.
- The only Formula 1 engine in a W configuration, which was used in Grand Prix, is a W12 engine from Life Racing. The former Ferrari engineer Franco Rocchi, who had designed in the 1970s, the legendary eight-cylinder engine of the brand, built in the late 1980s, initially for its own account a twelve -cylinder engine with three rows of four cylinders. Apart from the cylinder assembly, the concept of the engine was conservative; Special features, such as Guy Nègre had provided them, did not exist in Rocchis engine. The development of Rocchi - W12 coincided with a period in which the new Formula 1 was based. After the last race of the season 1988 turbo engines were banned; all teams had to use naturally aspirated again. During this time, was not immediately clear what number of cylinders and which approach would be the most successful. Therefore, some manufacturers tried different ideas. We saw in 1989 eight, ten and twelve-cylinder with different cylinder angles, Motori Moderni tried, for example, Subaru Boxer concept with a 180 ° cylinder angle, which was used in the 1990 Coloni unsuccessful. The W engine Rocchis was another variety, although conceptually the most extreme idea. The Italian businessman Ernesto Vita acquired the rights to the engine and tried in the course of 1988 to win a Formula 1 team for the use of the engine in the 1989 season. There were discussions with Coloni, but were unsuccessful. Other teams refused. Ultimately had to start his own team Vita, the team Life Racing, which took up with a used car and Rocchis engine in the 1990 season. What was meant as an attempt to convince other teams from the success of the concept, soon developed a disaster: The engine was not powerful; Staff spoke behind closed doors of 450 hp, which is hardly matched the performance level of the F3000. In addition, the engine was not reliable. Whenever penetrated the driver Gary Brabham and Bruno Giacomelli in higher speed ranges, it exploded. It is rare that drivers made a full timed lap.
Recent Double V- engines ( "W " engines ) from Volkswagen and Audi
The top model of the VW Passat was fitted between 2001 and 2004 with a W8 engine and all-wheel drive. The first generation of the VW Touareg was offered from 2004 to 2010 with a W12 engine. The VW Phaeton was 2002-2011 also available with a W12 engine.
The Volkswagen Group offers the W12 engine currently in the following models of:
The double - V-engine " W12 " is based on two VR6 engines, as they are known from the same VW Golf third generation. ( On subsequent Golf generations the same engine, however, was for marketing reasons only V6 called ).
The " W16 " from the Bugatti Veyron 16.4 is a V engine with two cylinder banks VR8 (15 degree cylinder angle). By this arrangement of the cylinders to build a space-saving 16 - cylinder engine with 7993 cc capacity achieved. Furthermore, this engine is equipped with four turbochargers (hence 16.4).