Wheel arrangement

The type designation of locomotives is the umbrella term of different naming systems of the various railway traction vehicle types. The most common are based on the wheel arrangement (according to DIN: Wheel arrangement ) building systems. Thus the very different axle or gear set of locomotives and railcars in short form can be displayed alphanumerically.

There have been various systems evolved to encode the wheel arrangement. For today's international standard the first time in 1908 by the Association of German Railway Administrations ( V DEV, from 1932 Association Central European railway administrations VMEV ) has defined System to be used by the International Union of Railways UIC in the UIC Code 612 (since 1 January 1983: UIC Code 650) taken been.

  • 2.1 Coupling ratio
  • 2.2 Old American system
  • 2.3 Whyte notation
  • 2.4 Double System
  • 2.5 Steam System
  • 2.6 Swiss system

V DEV / VMEV / UIC system

Through this system, almost all in use today types are covered.

Systematics and Examples

The number and sequence of axes is indicated from front to rear. Non -driving axles ( roll axis ) are indicated by Arabic numerals, powered wheels get latin capital letter. Therefore, we have:

A steam locomotive with two-axle bogie running ahead, followed by three coupled driving axles and finally with a movably mounted barrel axis is thus a 2'C1' locomotive.

Non- driving axles coupled with its own drive motor are characterized by a small zero (" 0"). This Einzelachsantrieb is available at most electric locomotives. For the electric locomotives of the series 150, 151, 155, 156, 171 and 103 of the former, the wheel arrangement is C0'C0 ' (pronounced " toe -zero line toe -zero line "). These locomotives have so

  • Two bogies ( ') ...
  • ... With three driving axles (C ) ...
  • With private ... driving motor per drive axle (0).

Railcars are often made while connected firmly together, but still theoretically separable cars. Are these units separately not much good in normal operation, the boundary between two separately movable parts of a locomotive or a railcar is indicated by a plus sign. Are railcars in a unit train but also can be used individually, they often preferred viewing as individual vehicles. When the units are separable only with the use of technical aids, such as when they are supported on common Jakobs bogies or have "floating" center sections, they are considered as a whole vehicle. If there are both driven and non-driven axles in a bogie, clings to the specification in addition.

Here are two examples:

  • The axis sequence of tilting railcar 610 series is 2 ' (A1 ) ( 1A) (A1 ) The railcar consists of two parts ( the plus sign )
  • In the first part of the wagon there is a bogie with two axles running ...
  • And ... a bogie with a driven and a non-driven axle.
  • In the second part of the wagon, we find two bogies of a driven and a non-driven axle.
  • The Reichsbahn - speed railcars of the type of Leipzig (137 153, 154, 233, 234) had, depending on driving technique, the wheel arrangement B'2'2'B 'or 2'B0'B0'2 '. The powered rail car train has at the outer ends normal bogies, while the car ends inside each supported on a common bogie, said hydraulic pumps, the driven axles in the engine bogie are, while the four electric motors were due to the better distribution of mass in the Jakobs trucks. However, some other vehicle combinations lead to the same representation! It may include a vehicle described in the normal between two bogie wagons, a third car body is suspended without its own axis as it is not unusual for trams.

Limitations and special variants

Sliding side axes and special arrangements such as the Krauss -Helmholtz - frame can not be displayed, not even the Jakob bogie often used in modern railcars. The "normal " in today's web technology are axis sequences as B = B ' or C'C ' in diesel-hydraulic locomotives and B0'B0 ' or C0'C0 ' for electric locomotives and diesel-electric locomotives. For railcars, however, as one sees easily very complicated axis sequences come about. But the now also used in Germany NoHAB diesel locomotives of the former Danish series My series have an interesting Wheel arrangement: (A1A ) ( A1A), as only four of the six axles are driven.

Markings for auxiliary drives and Zahnradlokomotiven

Mostly there were steam locomotives that for individual axes switchable auxiliary drives had ( so-called booster, as a start ). Such axes with auxiliary drive are sometimes marked with a lowercase letter, for example: 2'Ba '. Since this add-on drives not penetrated, their labeling remained largely unknown in the drive configuration.

Gear drives are marked with z. Either you write for each gear z, or counting the gears with lower case letters ( b = 2), possibly with a suffix such an unpowered axles, six-coupled steam locomotive with two gears, therefore, is referred to as Czz or Cbz or Cb.

Additions to the wheel arrangement for steam locomotives

For steam locomotives to several extensions to the VMEV system have mainly prevailed in the German language, which describe the design of a locomotive closer. These additives are appended by a space or a hyphen to the wheel arrangement. These and similar additives were also in other countries, common as they are but oriented to the local language, they could not be universally valid.

  • Vapor species: h = superheated steam ( in Austria in some cases also for t dry steam )
  • N = wet steam
  • The number after the vapor species indicates the cylinder number.

Example: 2'C1' - N4V is a wet steam, four-cylinder compound locomotive, 1'E - h3, a hot steam drilling.

Sometimes a tank locomotive with a trailing t in ( before or after the steam engine design) (eg 1'C1't - h2 or 1'C1 ' H2T ) is.

A potentially entrained Tender is one, strictly speaking, no longer the locomotive. For this, however, information is often added, such as the standard " 2'3 T38 oil ", which means in plain language, " with tender, BB wheel 2 running axles in the bogie and 3 fixed term axles, fuel tank capacity 38 cubic meters of water, fuel tank for oil. The amount of fuel is usually not specified.

The full name for the DR - 02 series with a four -cylinder compound engine and the 4-axle 32- cubic - unit tender would therefore be " 2'C1 ' h4v 2'2 ' T32 '.

Additions to the wheel arrangement for traction vehicles with internal combustion engines

For locomotives and railcars with an internal combustion engine you sometimes find the following additional terms:

  • Fuel: diesel d =, b = gasoline
  • Power transmission: m = mechanical, e = electric, h = hydraulic

Examples: A1- bm, B'B' - ie, B0'B0' de -

If trucks are powered together, the wheel arrangement may be underlined. Of these, the most common: B = B '= Two -axle trucks that are driven together, made ​​for example by drive shafts from a common gear.

Additions to the wheel arrangement for electric traction vehicles

Hardly in use are the additional indicators for electric drive vehicles:

  • Current Type: DC = g, w = ac, d = three-phase
  • The number after the type of current is the number of engines on
  • Engine type: k = crank drive without gear, u = crank drive with countershaft ( translated), e = Einzelachsantrieb with mounted in the frame motors, t = nose-suspended drive, gf = Einzelachsantrieb with mounted in the bogie motors with spring-loaded drive.

Examples: 1'D01' - W4E, B0'B0' - w4gf

The practical value of this additional information is low. In the current type is not clear whether the contact line or the motors is meant ( this distinction was playing at the time, when established, this system does not matter since there was hardly Umrichterfahrzeuge ).

Other systems

Coupling ratio

During the coupling ratio is not there is a system for describing the wheel arrangement. It is given only in the form of a fraction, the ratio of the driven axles to the total number of axles. A 3/6-gekuppelte locomotive could be a 2'C1 ' or 1'C2 ' or theoretically any 6 -axle locomotive with three driving axles.

In Bavaria and Switzerland, the coupling ratio was used as part of the series designation. The Bavarian S 3/6 was an express train locomotive with the wheel arrangement 2'C1 ' at the Swiss Ce 6/8 II it was the famous Swiss crocodile with the wheel arrangement ( 1'C ) (C1' ).

The designations A coupler B to F - coupler coupler A is a driven axle; B for two, three, etc. C to F for six coupled together and driven axles. Coupled in this context means that these axes can not rotate independently. Typically, by coupling rods is achieved (eg, steam ).

Old American system

For certain axis sequences to names have naturalized. A 1'D means, for example, "Consolidation ". The highest level of awareness ( even outside of railwaymen circles ), the "Pacific " wheel arrangement 2'C1 ' ( just think of Arthur Honegger's orchestral work " Pacific 231 "). Another well-known name is "Atlantic" for locomotives with the wheel arrangement 2'B1 or 2'B1 '

Unpowered locomotives after the wheels numeral with the suffix " switcher ", such as " Six wheel switcher " for a C. locomotives without leading axle and with a trailing axle (B1 ', C1', ...) are labeled " Four coupled and trailer ", " Six coupled and trailer ", etc. The axis sequences B2 ', C2 ', and so called" Forney four coupled ", " Forney six coupled " etc.

Over time, the system was always confusing, and you went to the Whyte notation above. Some names (such as "Soviet " for the Soviet 2'G2' locomotive or "Adriatic " for the Austrian 1'C2 ') are recreations.

Whyte notation

The common not only in the U.S. and UK, but also in general in English and throughout the Spanish -speaking world as well as in Canada and Brazil Whyte notation ( after the engineer Frederick Methvan Whyte of the New York Central Railroad ) counts a locomotive successive wheels and drive wheels (not the axes! ) indiscriminately with Arabic numerals in order from front to back with hyphens between the Radsatzgruppen.

The Whyte notation is used only for steam locomotives, electric locomotives thermal is on the American continent ( with the exception of some Argentine railway company ) uses the AAR classification. Brazil uses both the AAR and UIC classification, usually comes an unofficial but common practice system based on the British simplify the UIC classification system mixing between AAR and UIC apply.

Examples: A steam locomotive wheel arrangement by the UIC 2'D1 ' h2 would be after the Whyte system, a 4-8-2 (Scheme: ooooooo ). A ( 1'D ) D2 ' h4 Mallet locomotive is an American 2-8-8-4 (Scheme: Ooooo oooooo ).

The Whyte system takes into account that for steam locomotives in front and behind the driving wheels wheels still may be present. If this is not the case, here is a " 0". A steam locomotive of the UIC notation 2'C would be after the American system, a 4-6-0, a E corresponds to 0-10-0.

In Garratt locomotives, the system has to both engine groups applied separately and connected by a . The known class GMA / GMAM the South African SAR contributes to UIC the name ( 2'D1 ') ( 1'D2 '), the Whyte notation was 4-8-2 2-8-4 (Scheme: ooooooo ooooooo ).

French system

The French drive configuration system is similar to the Anglo-American ( Whyte ), but one of the axles instead of wheels and does not use hyphens. A 2'D1' locomotive would be based on the French system a " 241 ". Under this system, the SNCF has also referred to their series, such as 221 A or 240 P. The French system is also in use in Spain and Russia.

Steam system

The Turkish Achsformelsystem is probably the oldest locomotive classification systems. It consists of two single-or two-digit numbers, the first number indicates the number of driving axles, and the second number of the total number of axes. As in France, the classification number is used as the class name in Turkey. Thus, a 2'D1' locomotive under French system a " 241 " and after Whyte system, a " 4-8-2 ", according to Turkish system a " 47". A ( 1'D ) D1 ' Mallet locomotive, according French system a " 14 41 " and after Whyte a " 2-8-8-2 ", is in the Turkish system to a " 810 " with " 45 45 " notation. A ( 1'E ) E1 ' Mallet, French " 15 51 " and according to Whyte " 2-10-10-2 ", is a Turkish " 1012 " with " 56 56 " notation.

Swiss system

The Swiss Achsformelsystem is an imaginary slight modification as a simplification of the Turkish system: there is a slash between the number for the drive axle number and the number for the total number of axles. A 2'D1' locomotive, French " 241 ", according to Whyte " 4-8-2 " and Turkish " 47", is in Switzerland a "4 /7". A ( 1'D ) D1 ' Mallet, French " 14 41 ", according to Whyte " 2-8-8-2 " and Turkish " 810 ", called in Switzerland " 8/10 ", and one ( 1'E ) E1 ' Mallet, French " 15 51 ", according to Whyte " 2-10-10-2 " and Turkish " 1012 ", is known in Switzerland as 2x5 / 6. The Swiss classification system was used until 1924 in Bavaria.

Comparison of Achsfolgebezeichnungen and Achsbild