Xylella fastidiosa

Xylella fastidiosa, also called fire bacterium, a eubacterium of the class Gammaproteobacteria, is a Phythopathogen, it triggers the plant diseases phony peach disease, oleander leaf scorch, citrus variegated chlorosis disease, cancer of citrus and Pierce 's disease ( Pierce's disease ).


In São Paulo, Brazil, the entire genome of this kind could be deciphered in 2000. For two years, worked 200 scientists at the sequencing, which revealed that the genome of the bacterium comprises 2,679,305 base pairs. So far, all functions of the genes are not yet known, there are many which are essential for infection.

Pierce 's disease

This vine disease was first discovered in 1892 by Newton B. Pierce, a phytopathologists, on grapes in California. The pathogen causes that the water and nutrient balance of the plant is blocked, resulting in 2 to 3 years to die. In addition, the leaves of infested vines turn yellow and the fruits produced are small and hard.

In 1996 it was learned that the vector of this disease, Homalodisca vitripennis, a leafhopper of the genus Homalodisca is. This insect feeds on the xylem sap of the plants and thus transmit the bacterium.

The disease was detected in the southeastern United States in Mexico, Costa Rica and Venezuela.