God salmon ( Lampris guttatus )
The Acanthomorpha (or Acanthomorphata at EO Wiley & G. David Johnson ( 2010) ) are a group of genuine bony fish ( Teleostei ), to which about 16,000 species of fish that are over 60% of extant teleost species, about one-third of all vertebrate species and over 300 fish families belong.
The Acanthomorpha show an amazing variety of body shapes of skeletal and soft tissue anatomy, size, habitat, physiology and behavior. They are in most aquatic environments at home, in the deep sea as well as in mountain streams, springs in the midst of deserts and cave waters. Among them are the longest ( Regalecus glesne with up to 17 meters ), the heaviest ( sunfish with 2.3 tons ) and some of the smallest ( Schindleria 7.9 mm) bony fish.
Among the synapomorphies of Acanthomorpha real, unsegmented dorsal and anal fin spines ( absent in many cod -like, most gloss fish and many " Perciformes ( Perciformes ) ") and a Rostralknorpel, which ensures the Vorstreckbarkeit of the premaxilla. They also differ in the anatomy of the ligaments in her jaw skeleton and the vertebrae and by features of the pelvis and the tail fin skeleton of primitive fish groups. Very characteristic is the three-piece rear main joint: in addition to the pan for the first chorda - core ( in the basioccipital ) are two small heads in the paired Exoccipitale available.
The Acanthomorpha (ta ) include the order of the gloss Fishy ( Lampriformes ), whose sister group Paracanthomorphacea (including cods ( gadiformes ) ) and all bony fishes evolved that provide the majority of species.
The following cladogram shows the systematic position of the Acanthomorpha (ta):
Tiefseequappenartige ( Ateleopodiformes )
Eidechsenfisch Related ( Aulopiformes )
Lantern Fishy ( Myctophiformes )
Gloss Fishy ( Lampridiformes )
Paracanthomorphacea (perch -like salmon, dories, Stylephorus chordatus, cods )
Bart Fishy ( Polymixiiformes )
Mucus -like head ( Beryciformes )
Soldiers and hussars fish ( Holocentrimorphaceae )
Related perch ( Percomorphaceae )
The Acanthomorpha can be fossil from the early Late Cretaceous ( Cenomanian ) prove. Fossils from this period have been found, among others, in North America, Israel and Morocco. Fossil genera include Ctenothrissa, Aipichthys, Aipichthyoides, Aulolepis, Spinocaudichthys and Xenyllion.
- EO Wiley & G. David Johnson: A teleost classification based on monophyletic groups. Page 123-182 in Joseph S. Nelson, Hans -Peter Schultze & Mark VH Wilson: Origin and Phylogenetic Relationships of inter teleosts. 2010, Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, Munich, ISBN 978-3-89937-107-9.
- Joseph S. Nelson: Fishes of the World. John Wiley & Sons, 2006, ISBN 0-471-25031-7
- Robert L. Carroll: paleontology and evolution of vertebrates. Thieme, Stuttgart ( 1993), ISBN 3-13774-401-6