Andronikos I of Trebizond
Andronikos I. Gidoš († 1235 ) was from 1222 to 1235 and Emperor " Großkomnene " of Trebizond. He was the son Alexius I, the first emperor of Trebizond, whom he succeeded on the throne. Whether it is with him is the same Andronikos Gidoš who served the Emperor of the Empire of Nicaea Theodore I Laskaris as general, is unclear.
Andronikos was married to the daughter of Trebizond Emperor Alexios I.. When he died in 1222, were his two sons, who later Trebizond Emperor John I and Manuel I passed over in the succession to the throne. Instead their Andronikos succeeds of Alexios.
The first serious crisis during his reign he had to overcome from the year 1223, when it came to a confrontation with the ruling on the Sultanate of Iconium Rum - Seljuks. This had settled since 1221 in the town of Sudak in the Crimea and erected there until 1223 a fortified base. 1223 sent the Seljuk governor of Sinope a fleet to the coast of the Crimea to attack the local Trebizond possessions. His goal was to hinder trade in the dominated of Trebizond ports in the Crimea so that it had to be now handled through the port of Sudak. In the same year a ship, with the annual tribute of Trebizond possessions should be transported in the Crimea in the capital, driven by a storm in the harbor of Sinope. In defiance of the agreements made between the Seljuks and Andronikos, the ship was the governor of the city, together with the cargo and some passengers, among whom was the Archon of located on the Crimean province of Trebizond and several officials of the city of Kherson were applied.
Now Andronikos collected himself a fleet, which he immediately sent to Sinope. Once there, overcame his soldiers the walls of the city, which they plundered. In addition to them, the ships fell into their hands, who were at that time in the harbor there. The prisoner by the Seljuks held Archon was freed and both the confiscated tribute as well by them after the attack on the Crimea geschaffte after Sinope booty fell to Trebizond troops in their hands.
Subsequently, the Sultan of Iconium 1224 marched himself with his main army against Trebizond. Andronikos turned the Seljuks with their own troops at the fortified passes against which they had to pass to get to Trebizond. After the Seljuk Turks had suffered significant losses in the fighting there, but Andronikos pulled his soldiers behind the walls of Trebizond. These were considered to be impregnable.
The army of the Seljuks began with the siege of the city. From one located near the St. Eugenios monastery bearing from it first cremated the unpaved suburbs Trebizond and began spying after the city walls eventually to attack the city from the seaward side. There was a series of attacks and counter-attacks, culminating in a final night attack by the Seljuks. During this advance, a thunderstorm suddenly broke out, which led torrential rains and hail with it. This brought the attackers, some of which were washed away by flash floods that reduce rolling around in the mountains, completely out of the concept, so that some of them lost their way in the dark and fell from the cliffs on the seaward side of the city in deep gorges.
The Sultan was brought as a prisoner to Trebizond, where Andronikos received him with all honor. You signed a contract, according to the Empire of Trebizond from now on no tribute and had to make no more military service. This Andronikos was the vassal status, which tied him to the Sultanate of Iconium strip. The Sultan said to have been so impressed by his treatment that he later regularly Arabian horses made Andronikos to the present and the St. Eugenios gave to multiple donations.
The thus obtained independence Trebizond lasted until 1230. This year, the last Khorezm Shah Jalal ad-Din fell in Anatolia, he wanted to snatch the Sultanate of Iconium. Jalal ad-Din, who had already conquered Georgia, a direct neighbor of Trebizond had become since then already. Since Andronikos probably believed not to be able to remain neutral in the conflict between the two sultanates, he concluded with the Khorezm Shah an alliance against the Seljuks. In the Battle of Yassi Cemen (1230 ), however, succeeded in the army of Iconium to defeat the Choresmier crucial. From the defeated troops fled, many people tend to Trebizond, as a contingent of Andronikos had participated in the battle on the side of Choresmier.
The alliance with the losers cost Andronikos the advantages he had in 1223 negotiated with the Sultan of Iconium. Trebizond again became its vassal and had to ask him for a report from 1240, an armed force of 1,000 men available.
Andronikos had soon to complain about another loss. After the conquest of a large part of Georgia by the Mongols and the associated turmoil said to themselves vast areas in Iberia and Lazien who had previously were under the reign of Andronikos, of Trebizond going on. They went in the Kingdom of Imereti under David VI. Narin on.
Andronikos died 1235th On the throne was succeeded by John I., the eldest son of his predecessor Alexius.
- W. Miller, Trebizond: The Last Greek Empire of the Byzantine Era, Chicago, 1926.
- Kaiser ( Trebizond )
- Born in the 12th or 13th century
- Died in 1235