Wood Anemone (Anemone nemorosa)
The Windflower (Anemone ) are a genus of flowering plants in the family Ranunculaceae ( Ranunculaceae ). To this genus includes about 150 species, which are mainly in the northern hemisphere and there mainly native to the temperate regions of Asia.
As an ornamental plant by many species found in Central European gardens spread. The most important among them the garden anemone (Anemone coronaria ) and originating from Turkey Windflower (Anemone blanda ), also called radiotherapy anemone.
The botanical name goes back to ancient times. Pliny the Elder brings him to the Greek anemos = wind in combination. Anemona was also a nymph in the court of the goddess Flora. According to legend Flora's husband Zephyr, the god of wind is said to have fallen in love with anemona, after which it was transformed by the jealous goddess in a flower. Today, however, it is thought more likely that the name Anemone is due to an Arabic word for Adonis, namely on - Nu'man ( = blood) and refers to a red-flowering plant.
Anemone species grow as a perennial, herbaceous plants, depending on the type they can reach very different growth heights ( 10 to 60 cm). Are formed as outlasting rhizomes or tubers. The leaves are mostly basal; the heyday lack the basal leaves in some species. The stalked basal leaves are simple or compound. The leaf blade may be lobed or divided. The leaf edges are smooth to toothed.
At the stem is depending on the type at different heights a whorl ( whorl ) usually two to seven (rarely up to nine) foliage leaf - or sepal -like bracts. The terminal, zymösen or doldigen inflorescences are rare one, usually two to neunblütig.
The hermaphrodite flowers are radial symmetry. The 4 to 20 (rarely to 27) free bracts are 1.5 to 40 mm long. The colors of the bracts range from white to pink to red, from purple to blue, green and yellow. Nectaries are present. There are 10 to 200 stamens present. There are many free carpels present, each of which contains only one ovule. A stylus is formed.
The flowers are formed many, stalked or sessile, ovate to ovate - runs fruits ( follicles or nutlets ). The fruits are up to 40 (rarely to 50) mm long and sometimes hairy. On the fruit is usually the pen still clearly visible.
All species are slightly toxic in the fresh state by protoanemonin, therefore, was formerly obtained from poison. During drying and cooking the poison contained in the non-hazardous Anemonin is converted. In the fresh food poisoning anemones can cause the cattle.
The approximately 150 species worldwide on every continent except for Antarctica widespread. Mainly are the areas in the moderate zones. In China alone, there are 53 species, 22 of which are endemic. In North America, 25 species are endemic.
All indicated in the following list species of the genus Anemone (Anemone ) are native to Europe or to find in European gardens. For cultivation in gardens next to the beautiful flower was crucial that these species are hardy, hardy and easy to grow.
The liverwort with which is native to Europe Hepatica (Anemone hepatica) were formerly a separate genus ( Hepatica ), which included six ways: Except Hepatica nobilis, Hepatica transsylvanica from Romania and four types of narrowly defined areas in East Asia, H. falconeri, H. henryi, H. maxima and H. yamatutai. They will be divided according to the current taxonomic status in the genus Anemone ..
- European Species Altai Anemone (Anemone altaica Fischer ex CA Meyer ) (Asia, Altai Mountains, but also comes in Europe ( Russia) ago)
- Apennine Anemone (Anemone apennina L.)
- Tyrolean wood anemone (Anemone baldensis L.)
- Windflower, also radiation - Anemone (Anemone blanda Schott & Kotschy )
- Crown Anemone, also Garden Anemone (Anemone coronaria L.)
- Anemone dichotoma L. ( East Asia, but also comes in European Russia ago)
- Star Anemone (Anemone hortensis L.)
- Daffodil Anemone or Berghähnlein (Anemone narcissiflora L.)
- Windflower, popularly also called " witches Flower" (Anemone nemorosa L.)
- West Mediterranean Anemone or Anemone Hand -shaped (Anemone palmata L. ) (Spain, Portugal, Sardinia, Sicily, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, formerly also in France)
- Anemone pavoniana Boiss. ( comes only in Spain in the Cantabrian Mountains ago)
- Peacock anemone (Anemone pavonina Lam. ) (France, Central and Eastern Mediterranean )
- Yellow Anemone (Anemone ranunculoides L.)
- Backward Curved Anemone (Anemone reflexa Stephan) ( East Asia, but also comes in European Russia ago)
- Large Anemone (Anemone sylvestris L.)
- Three Leaf Anemone (Anemone trifolia L.)
- Anemone uralensis fish. ex DC. ( Urals, is also in the European part before )
To do this:
- Hepatica (Anemone hepatica L., Syn: Hepatica nobilis Schreber ) ( Europe, East Asia, North America)
- Transylvanian Hepatica (Anemone transsilvanica ( foot) Heuffel ) ( Syn: Hepatica transsilvanica foot), comes in herb -rich deciduous forests in Romania in the Carpathians and in Transylvania up to 2000 m above sea level before.
- Asian tropical species: Baikal Windflower (Anemone baicalensis Turcz. & Ledeb. ) ( Siberia, North Korea, China)
- Caucasus Windflower (Anemone caucasica Willd. Rupr ex. ) (Caucasus, Asia Minor )
- Turkestan Windflower (Anemone eranthioides rule) (Central Asia )
- Floppy Windflower (Anemone flaccida F. Schmidt) ( Amur region, northern China, Japan, Sakhalin)
- Fiederblättrige Anemone (Anemone glaucifolia Franch, . Shall also be made as Anemoclema glaucifolium ( Franch. ) WT Wang in a separate genus Anemoclema ) occurs in forests and grasslands in China ( Southwest Sichuan, northwestern Yunnan ) at altitudes 1700-3000 meters
- Herbstanemone (Anemone hupehensis (E. Lemoine) E. Lemoine) ( Hupeh Province of China, Japan)
- Anemone leveillei Ulbr. (West China)
- Stumpflappige Anemone (Anemone obtusiloba D. Don ), occurs in the Himalayas (Pakistan and Afghanistan to southeast Tibet, China, Myanmar) at altitudes 2900-4000 meters
- Vielblütiges Windflower (Anemone polyanthes D. Don ) (eastern Himalayas and Pakistan)
- Pheasant Wood Anemone (Anemone raddeana rule) (Korea )
- Richardson Anemone (Anemone richardsonii Hook. ) ( Arctic North America, Greenland, Kamchatka, Arctic Siberia)
- Bach Windflower (Anemone rivularis Buch.-Ham. Ex DC. ) (Bhutan, Nepal, Sikkim, China, Sri Lanka, Sumatra)
- Rock Anemone (Anemone rupicola Cambess. ), Is found in the Himalayas, China (Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan ) at altitudes 2400-4200 meters
- Westhimalaische Anemone (Anemone tetrasepala Royle ), occurs in Tanna forests, alpine meadows, rocky stream banks in the western Himalayas ( Afghanistan, Kashmir, North West India, Pakistan) at altitudes 2100-3600 meters
- Filzblättrige Anemone (Anemone tomentosa ( Maxim. ) C. Pei ) occurs in grasslands at altitudes 700-3400 m in China ( Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Qinghai, Shanxi and Sichuan )
- Löffelblättrige Anemone (Anemone trullifolia Hook f. & Thomson), is found in Bhutan, Nepal, Sikkim, Tibet, China at altitudes 2500-4500 meters
- Weinblättrige Anemone (Anemone vitifolia Buch.-Ham. Ex DC. ), Occurs in open forests, in grasslands, river banks at altitudes 1200-2700 meters in Bhutan, Nepal, Sikkim, northern Myanmar, Sichuan, Yunnan and Tibet.
- North American species: Canada - wood anemone (Anemone canadensis L. ) (Canada, USA, Scandinavia naturalized )
- Carolina Anemone (Anemone caroliniana Walter ) (from Texas and Alabama to South Dakota and Minnesota)
- Prairie anemone (Anemone cylindrica A. Gray ), occurs in dry open woods, in prairies, to graze on roadsides in North America at altitudes between 300 and 3000 meters
- Drummond's anemone (Anemone drummondii S. Watson ) (Alaska, Canada, United States)
- Pacific Anemone (Anemone multifida Poir. ) (Alaska, Canada, USA, South America temperate )
- Reef Anemone (Anemone riparia Fernald ) (Canada, USA )
- Virginia Anemone (Anemone virginiana L.) (Canada, USA)
- Other species: Cordillera Windflower (Anemone decapetala Ard. ) ( South America)
- Mexican Windflower (Anemone mexicana Humb. , Bonpl. & Kunth ) (Mexico )
- Hybrids Anemone x fulgens ( DC.) J. Gay (A. hortensis × A. pavonina )
- Anemone × lesseri H.R. Wehrh. (A. multifida × A. sylvestris)
- Anemone × lipsiensis Beck ( A. nemorosa × A. ranunculoides; syn. A. × intermedia Winkl ex injection; A. × seemenii EC Camus.. )
Today, the freshly squeezed juice in homeopathy is being used.
White-flowered anemone species:
Altai Anemone (Anemone altaica)
Windflower: carpet of flowers near Rostock
Yellow Anemone (Anemone ranunculoides ):
Together with lesser celandine
Herbstanemone (Anemone hupehensis ):
- Walter Erhardt, Erich Götz, Nils Boedeker, Siegmund Seybold: The big walleye. Encyclopedia of plant names. Band. 2 species and varieties. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart 2008, ISBN 978-3-8001-5406-7.
- Werner Greuter, Burdet Hervé -Maurice, Guy Long ( Eds.): Med - Checklist. A critical inventory of vascular plants of the circum - mediterranean countries. Vol 4 ( Dicotyledones: Lauraceae Rhamnaceae ). Conservatoire et Jardin Botanique, Geneva, 1989, ISBN 2-8277-0154-5, pp. 393-395. , Online.
- Wang Wencai, Svetlana N. Ziman, Bryan E. Dutton: anemone. In: Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven, Deyuan Hong (eds.): Flora of China. Volume 6: Caryophyllaceae through Lardizabalaceae, Science Press / Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing / St. Louis 2001, ISBN 1-930723-05-9, pp. 307 pdf file online.
- Bryan E. Dutton, Carl S. Keener, Bruce A. Ford: anemone. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee ( eds.): Flora of North America North of Mexico. Volume 3: Magnoliidae and Hamamelidae, Oxford University Press, New York / Oxford et al 1997, ISBN 0-19-511246-6, pp. 139-141, online..
- Eckhart J. Hunter, Friedrich Ebel, Peter Hanelt, Gerd Müller, K. (ed.): Excursion Flora of Germany. Founded by Werner Roth painter. Volume 5: Herbaceous ornamental and useful plants, Springer, Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Berlin / Heidelberg, 2008, ISBN 978-3-8274-0918-8.
- Anemone in the Germplasm Resources Information Network ( GRIN), USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
- Eckhart J. Hunter, Friedrich Ebel, Peter Hanelt, Gerd K. Müller: Excursion Flora of Germany. Volume 5 Herbaceous ornamental and useful plants. Oxford University Press. Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008. ISBN 978-3-8274-0918-8