Erzherzogshut is the name of the country crowns the monarch of the Habsburg hereditary lands (and later the Archduchy Austria and its subsidiary countries) analog, for example, the Duke hat of Styria and the ducal crown. The name derives from the fact that the highest-ranking function as princes before the election as King of Bohemia in 1526 and the hereditary succession of the Kingdom of Hungary, also in 1526, carried the Austrian Habsburgs, the title Archduke of Austria was.
On a portrait of Rudolf IV (1339-1365), Duke of Austria and self-proclaimed Archduke, is seen " Archduke Crown" a. But the existence of such early crown in research is controversial, even if the right to wear such a the Habsburgs in the (now debunked as a forgery ) " Maius privilege " was granted.
The first historically documented fact, but now defunct Erzherzogshut let gravity of the Iron (1377-1424) customize the bore the title, although this was at that time neither awarded by the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire still acknowledged. ( The official confirmation of the title was not until 1453 under the Emperor Frederick III. Place when the Habsburgs had already secured the imperial dignity. )
Another, also now no longer existing Erzherzogshut was created to celebrate the death of Archduke Ferdinand II (1529-1595), the Tyrol and Further Austria had ruled. ( In his territory, he was Count of Tyrol, etc., he carried the title of Archduke as the Habsburg Prince of birth. )
The last two Archduke Maximilian III hats were for 1616. (1558-1618), the regent of Tyrol and Further Austria, established. Both are obtained.
The Austrian archduke gave Archduke Maximilian III. 1616 the Augustinian Canons of Klosterneuburg Lower Austria as a country crown of Archduchy Austria and as " a symbol of the unity of the Austrian hereditary lands ." The Insignia has since been kept there. The Artist and place of manufacture of the hat are unknown.
The hat consists of a serrated crown with cross-over straps. Ermine and red velvet are stretched around the crown. The brackets are set with rubies, emeralds and pearls. A trimmed in gold large blue sapphire crowns the two brackets in the middle, it is a small, gold cross. Some of the gems have the medieval Mugelschliff. Apparently they tried to emphasize the use of medieval jewels of the age of the Archduke dignity. The serrated crown with red hat and ermine attacks, however the shape of the Elector hats, whereby the high standards of the Austrian archdukes was underlined.
In the foundation charter is explicitly demanded that the Austrian archduke in Klosterneuburg must be kept near the grave of St. Leopold. Under threat of excommunication, the Crown was allowed only on special occasions, such as the hereditary homage of the estates, are brought from the monastery, and only for a maximum of 30 days. By keeping the crown in the vicinity of St. Leopold should, similarly to the Holy Crown of Saint Stephen of Hungary and the crown of St. Wenceslas of Bohemia, the importance of the sacred " Leopold crown " of Austria to be underlined as an absolute rule of signs.
From 1620 the archduke to the ceremony of Hereditary Homage was brought each new sovereigns to Vienna last 1835 for Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria.
Since 2011 a new treasure chamber was built in the Stift Klosterneuburg, is the Holy Crown of Austria, as the Austrian archduke was also referred to, presented in a showcase to the public.
The Tyrolean archduke Maximilian III donated. , The German master, for the castle Maria Stein near Kufstein in Tyrol, which became a place of pilgrimage in the 18th century. It is part of the Tyrolean regalia. The name of this country's crown does not mean that Tyrol would have been Archduchy (it was a gefürstete county), but that the ruler of Tirol contributed as the Habsburg prince from birth the title of Archduke of Austria, although he did not rule in Vienna. The own crown shows the temporarily emancipated special status as sovereign and the tripartite division of ancestral lands in Lower Austria, Inner Austria and Upper Austria (Tirol Austria with front ).
Originally includes with ermine, which ended with the time lost, and was replaced with white silk and painted ermine tail tips.
Archduke Joseph II
In addition to these Archduke Beware there is another, which was in 1764 for the coronation of Joseph II as Holy Roman king made in Frankfurt, there to emphasize the hereditary rulers dignity of Joseph. But since it has not been possible to bring the archduke of the Klosterneuburg Abbey to Frankfurt, the emperor customize this copy for yourself.
The copy looks much different than the 1616 original created. You, in contrast to the original only on a hanger. Instead of sapphire under the cross is a small golden orb. Perhaps the designer was influenced by the portrait of Rudolf the Founder with his Archduke crown. After being crowned the copy was no further use of more and the stones and beads were removed. Get remained the carcass, the metal frame, which is kept in the treasury of the Vienna Hofburg.
Erzherzogshut as heraldic helmet
The coat of arms of Upper Austria shows instead of the helmet on the coat of arms of the Austrian archduke. The Province of Lower Austria had the Erzherzogshut on his coat of arms until 1918, since then bears the arms of Lower Austria, the bourgeoisie symbolizing a mural crown, as they ( in smaller form ) also carries the Austrian eagle. The Salzburg coat of arms wearing a ducal crown, which looks similar to the archduke.
Ducal crown of Styria
The Styria remained under Habsburg rule Duchy. A rise in rank to Archduchy found here - as in Carinthia, Carniola and other duchies of the Habsburgs - not instead.
The ducal crown Styria ( with a height of 20.5 cm and a diameter of 20 cm) dates from the 15th century and is one point frost silver-gilt, provided with a crab occupied strap and a cross. In 1766 beads were added to email versions and the hat was fashioned. Transferred by Maria Theresia in Vienna Treasury, he became in 1790 the request of the Styrian estates returned to the Styria. He is now kept in the museum at the Palais in Graz .. He crowns and the Styrian provincial coat of arms.
The coat of arms of Lower Austria with Erzherzogshut (up to 1918)
The coat of arms of Upper Austria with Erzherzogshut
The coat of arms of Styria with ducal crown