The sense of balance is used to determine the posture and orientation in space. The sense of balance is made up of several individual senses: the vestibular perception that determines the direction of gravity and acceleration; of visual perception, which determines the orientation in space; the sense of touch and proprioception.
The perception of gravity is centered on the vestibular system of the inner ear and cerebellum. Are also essential to the eye, the optic nerve and all the neurons of the visual system; they take the true position in space, consisting of the sense of up and down ( perpendicular direction ), for angles or inclinations ( state orientation ).
For a sense of balance also contribute:
- The skeletal muscles - at body twists and partly during acceleration
- The buttocks ( in the plane language, the " staying power " ) - when accelerating, especially in the vertical direction
- Hearing - to estimate speeds with the help of air noise, and
- The skin sense - for in-house and air movements. Birds feel the air forces of the springs.
In invertebrates the Statozyste maintains the balance in the water. In plants, there are positive and negative Gravitropism in different cell types.