Carl Joseph Schröter

Karl ( Carl ) Joseph Schroeter ( born December 19, 1855 in Esslingen am Neckar, † February 7, 1939 in Zurich ) was a German -Swiss botanist, university professor and pioneer of nature and landscape protection, and one of the founders of Geobotany. Its official botanical author abbreviation is " Schröt. ".

Life and work

Schroeter, who grew up in Wuerttemberg in Stuttgart and went to school, came at a young age with his family to ( Zurich ) Fluntern. His father Maurice Julius was a professor at the Polytechnic in Zurich and died already in 1867. Together with his mother and his siblings got Carl Schroeter 1868, the Swiss civil rights Fluntern. Carl Schroeter studied from 1874 Natural Sciences at the ETH Zurich, where he was among other things a student of August Wilhelm Eichler (classification), Karl Cramer ( Botany ), Johann Jakob breakfast (geography), Oswald Heer ( paleontology ) and Albert Heim ( Geology of the Alps). He obtained in 1876 with a thesis on " The gymnosperms per se and with regard to their blood relationship with angiosperms and cryptogams " the becoming a teacher of Natural Sciences. After his habilitation in 1878 in the subject Botany, he first worked as an employee of Karl Cramer and was appointed in 1883 as Professor of Botany at the ETH Zurich.

Schroeter is considered one of the founders of ecological Geobotany. His main area of ​​work was the Alps Botany, of which he his main work The plant life of the Alps wrote, which was published in two editions in 1908 and 1926, in which he described primarily site- ecological and biozönologische phenomena ( The alpine flowers and their pollinators ). In addition, Schroeter employed in his lectures and publications with problems of agriculture and forestry. Importantly for the Alpine Farming was his close scientific cooperation with Friedrich Gottlieb Stebler in the field of food crop production.

Several of his students later became famous botanist himself, among others Heinrich Brockmann Jerosch, Marie Brockmann - Jerosch, Albrecht Frey Wyssling, Walo cooking and Eduard Rübel. Josias Braun- Blanquet, the self-taught einarbeitete in the Alps Botany, had early contact with Carl Schroeter, who influenced his work greatly.

1902 led Schroeter the terms autecology and Synecology in science a. Numerous research trips led him not only to almost all European landscapes but also to the Canary Islands (1908 ) and North and South Africa (1910). In the years 1888-1889 Schroeter undertook a research journey that took him across the U.S. to Hawaii, Japan, China, Singapore, Indonesia and Ceylon, where the vegetation he studied in depth and about which he reported in numerous presentations and publications.

Into old age, he was closely associated with nature conservation, while a member of several committees. He was, from 1906 Member of the Swiss Conservation Commission under Paul Sarasin and 1919-1924 chairman of the Zurich Conservation Commission. Along with Johann Coaz he sat down around 1906 strongly supported the establishment of the National Park of Val Scarl (Graubünden) a. His book on the moors of Switzerland (along with JJ early ) deals among other things with the practical conservation in peatlands. As one of the first high school teacher of his time, he campaigned for the popularization of science. So he had a major role in the creation and development of the adult education Zurich and in 1920 was its first president.


  • Membre ASSOCIE of Soc. Royale de Botanique de Belgique
  • Honorary Member of the Swiss Federation for Nature Conservation
  • Societas Scientiarum Fennica Foreign Member of Helsingfors
  • Corresponding Member of the Botanical Soc. of America
  • Corresponding Member Botanical Soc. of Edinburgh
  • Corresponding Member Nederlandsche Vereeniging Botanical
  • Member of the Royal Irish Academy
  • Member of the German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina
  • Full member of Societas Scientiarium Upsaliensis
  • Utländsk Göteborgs Kungl. Vetenskaps och Vitterheds Samhälle
  • Member Societas Linnaeana Londonensis
  • Honorary Member of Societas Botanica Edinburg
  • Mamre associö Soc. Botanique de Pologne
  • Honorary Member Naturf. Total to Basel
  • Honorary Member of Societas pro Fauna et Flora Fennica
  • Honorary Member of British Ecological Soc.
  • Honorary Member of German Botanical Ges
  • Member Math Naturw.Klasse the Norske Akademi i Oslo Videnskaps -

Honorary Doctorates

  • Honorary doctorate tutoring. and Phys. Faculty, University of Amsterdam
  • Doctor of Agriculture eh Agricultural University of Bonn- Poppelsdorf
  • Dr.phil. H.C. University of Bern
  • Dr. oec. publ. H.C. Ludwig- Maximilians- University of Munich
  • Honorary Doctorate, University of Cambridge

Writings (selection )