Case government

Directorate (from Latin regere, "control", engl. Government) is a term of grammar that describes a relationship between two constituents of a sentence. It gets assigned a dependent, governed element (also called " dependens " ) properties from the ruling element (also called " rain" or " head").

Torate in traditional grammar

In the strict, traditional sense is meant by General for the assignment of a case by verbs or prepositions, nouns less frequently, to their arguments. For example, the verb governs the accusative order of its object and the preposition with the dative to its complement:

  • He ordered Akk [ a pancake ] with Dat [ a small salad ].
  • " Help " the verb requires an object that is in the dative case: "I 'll help you. "
  • The verb "give" requires that the indirect object of the sentence is in the dative case: "I give the man the ball "
  • " Cost " The Directorate of the verb ( one also says case result of the verb ) determines whether the dative ( " It cost him his head " ), accusative ( "It cost him his head " ), or both is correct.
  • The preposition " for " indicates the supplement to the genitive, "through" the accusative.


Be infinite verb forms that are required of auxiliary verbs, also described as a case of Directorate analog to the concept of Kasusrektion. Gunnar Bech (1955/1983) coined the term " Statusrektion " because the infinitive different from him were called " verbal " status. These assigned by General for Infinitivmerkmalen it concerns:

  • The bare infinitive in-en,
  • The infinitive with to
  • Or the so-called participle.

Examples are the two variants of the auxiliary verb be as passive and as Futurhilfsverb. The fact that these are two different auxiliary verbs, all you see is the fact that they govern different characteristics, ie that the accompanying verb infinitive be assigned to different:

Passive: requires the participle in the verb ( Bech: " 3.Status of the infinitive " )

Futur: requires the bare -en- infinitive ( Bech: " 1.Status " )

Torate in generative grammar

In formal theories of syntax, such as the Government - Binding theory are called General for a structural relationship between two entities in the set that may be associated with case assignment, but not necessarily. The Rektionsbeziehung can be explained on the basis of the tree shown in the figure.

The preposition "with" is here as a supplement ( complement) the phrase " a salad from the garden ." This forms a noun phrase or " noun group " ( = NP), as their core component and head is the noun " salad ".

Retrieved from " salad " in turn depends another phrase that has the preposition "of" head (ie a prepositional phrase = PP). This PP is thus an attribute to the noun " salad ".

In the given structure, there is now a Rektionsbeziehung (blue arrow) between the preposition "with" and the noun phrase to the noun " salad ", because these units meet the requirements of the following definition ( a simplified formulation of the standard in the Government -Binding Theory form):

The latter condition is necessary to prevent Rektionsbeziehungen arise which would skip intervening heads. In the example now, the following applies:

  • If we choose α = a "with" and β = NP with the head N = " salad ". Then governed by the preposition "with" the NP, because ( i) P is a head, (ii) generating a phrase (PP) containing the NP and (iii) there is no other head therebetween, has the same property.
  • If we choose α = 'with' and β = NP with the head N = " garden ". Then the preposition does not govern the NP " the garden ". Because although the conditions (i ) and ( ii ) are met again, but between "with" and " the garden " is the preposition " of ", and their PP contains the NP " the garden " already ( gray box ). There is a Rektionsbeziehung between "off" and " garden ", but not with the upper preposition "with". So the latter can not enter reign in the gray area being painted.

In this example, the ruling heads, prepositions, Kasuszuweiser, they both assign a dative to its complement. Case assignment is now understood as a process that is possible when a Rektionsbeziehung is the structure, and when the head assigns a case. Thus, the above definition also ensures that the NP " the garden " can get their Dativkasus only from "off", not from a distant preposition.

Rektionsbeziehungen without case assignment are eg in generative syntax used to model the grammar of bound pronouns or empty categories, so va in attachment theory and the "Empty -category principle" (ECP ) of the Government -binding theory.