As conjugation ( coniugatio of latin, connection ' ) refers to the flexion (bending ) of verbs, for example, by changing the word tribe or appending affixes.
- 5.1 German
- 5.2 Latin
- 5.3 English
- 5.4 French
- 5.5 Polish
- 5.6 Russian
- 5.7 Different Languages
- 5.8 Arabic
One often distinguishes between two main classes: primary and secondary conjugation conjugation.
Hardly a language has forms for all conjugacy classes. There are, for example, in Chinese or Japanese, neither person nor number. The English, in turn, has few custom shapes for the modes.
The primary inflected conjugation of the verb, to adapt it to other parts of sentences ( this adjustment is called congruence ). There are only two kinds of primary conjugation: person ( 1st, 2nd or 3rd person) and number (singular, dual, plural, Paukal, distributive, Quadral, Trial).
With the secondary conjugation of the verb in the speaker can certain properties of the whole sentence (specifically, the proposition) expressed, namely Tempus (time) and aspect, mood, gender Verbi ( active, passive ) and the type of action.
Non- conjugated forms
The infinitive is valid in the German language as not conjugated, but in today's linguistic theories and descriptions as a considered by many inflections of the verb (-> Infinite verb form ). It is usually characterized by the inflectional ending " s " in a number of verbs " eln " by the infinitive or " ren " ( originally " elen " and " older " ), in some dialectal verbs, but also " erln " before ( " busserln "). Exceptions to this are "his" and "do" verbs. There are also in the Indo-European languages are other " non- conjugated " verb forms outside of the system shown above; many of these languages have the following non-conjugated forms:
However, there is this difference between the Indo-European languages in modern Greek for example, there is no infinitive.
In the English language the infinitive with "to " is formed: to go, to see.
In the Russian language the infinitive ends in ть ( понимать ) or ти ( нести ). The infinitive form of the verb are other properties of ( aspect: писать - написать, re-integration: возвращаться ).
In the Lithuanian language the infinitive ends with non-reflexive verbs and reflexive verbs with additional prefix always up -ti ( gerti ), which is not emphasized. In reflexive verbs readily prefix of the infinitive in - tis ( rūpintis ) ends.
In the Latvian language the infinitive ends with non-reflexive verbs ending in -t ( dzert ) and reflexive on - ties ( klausīties ).
Conjugation in the Indo-European languages
In the Indo-European languages in the form of a verb is determined by the following properties:
- Number (number)
- Tempus (time )
- Verbi genus ( diathesis)
This results in a lot of different forms with verbs, not all combinations occur in one language ( the imperative, for example, is already clearly marked by the additional indication of the humerus ). Each of these forms is determined by specifying the mode, tense, gender, number and person exactly.
Not in every case, one can clearly determine what form, because different forms may coincide but in an actual verb.
Very often use the languages auxiliary verbs to express tense or diathesis:
It is often sufficient when learning a language, a few forms per verb to remember and then to form by means of rules, all other forms of it. In particular, we denote by conjugation in this sense the group of verbs whose shapes can be formed with uniform rules.
- Weak conjugation ( love - I loved, hope - I hope )
- Strong conjugation ( run - I ran, look - I saw )
- A- conjugation ( amare, laudare )
- E - conjugation ( monere )
- I- conjugation ( audire )
- Kurzvokalische i- conjugation ( capere )
- Consonantal conjugation ( regere )
For the first time in 1842 appeared in French language has its own reference for conjugation, which is also known today as Bescherelle still under the name of its author.