When cycling, Swiss Velo Sport, referred to sports that are run with the bike.
These include the road cycling to road bicycle racing, the bike marathon, the cycling and public races, more of the Track Cycling, Mountain Biking, Cyclocross, Trial ( driving skills ), BMX, mountain bike orienteering, and indoor cycling styles Art Cycling, cycle ball and bicycle polo. As a form of training and independent Exercising the Spinning, or indoor cycling has developed. In the Marathon area (200 to 1200 km ) there are brevets and Audax events for everyone.
The early types of the bike before the development of modern-day Niederrad - so often handcar called walking machine in the 1820s and especially the penny farthing of the 1870s and 1880s - were influenced by the fact that the bike was not Nutzgefährt, but as a sports and fun device was used. High cyclists were regarded as courageous gamblers and excited accordingly since the 1870s with adventure tours attention. So shall the American Thomas Stevens of 1884 succeeded on two wheels until 1886, the first Weltumradelung.
In Germany, the first cycling club in Altona / Elbe was lifted out of the baptism with the Eimsbütteler Velocipeden Club on April 17, 1869. Already on September 10, organized the bike fans during an industrial exhibition in the same year a first race with participants from France, Denmark and England.
Soon shifted the public of the adventure rides, the more aligned expeditions as a sport exercises the interest on record drives in which individual racers trace a certain long distance ( approximately the maximum distance in the British Isles from Cornwall to northern Scotland from 1400 miles) in the shortest possible time had. This allowed the skeptical contemporaries the superiority of the bicycle over any other private transport, the turn of the century are demonstrated.
On December 8, 1867 the first one-day race in the world took place in Paris. Approximately 100 participants attended on the Avenue des Champs- Élysées and started to around 23 km from the Palace of Versailles.
The first contested by women cycling race was held on 1 November 1868 in Bordeaux. Venue of the event was the Parc Bordelais. Four women completed a race on a 500 meter track.
The first road race is said to have 1865 in Amiens ( France) took place. Many of the then initiated races are still "classics" such as the " Spring Classic " Liege -Bastogne- Liege ( since 1892 ), Paris -Roubaix (since 1896) and Milan - San Remo (since 1907).
Especially from the 90s of the 19th century found distance races increasing attention from the public, in which a larger number of competing racers had to get it over distances of almost always more than 500 km.
1903 finally was the first stage race, the Tour de France launched, had to be completed in the similar path lengths as in the distance races - but in this case for several consecutive days. In six stages 2428 km were completed at that time, the average of the winner was impressive 26 km / h
In addition to the road race but also cycling events on the web, such as Six Days and pacemaker race already in the early days of cycling were extremely popular.
An important aspect of cycling, the fact is that here the first systematic sponsorship was practiced in modern sport: From the beginning, all kinds of cycling from bike companies were supported and influenced because it initially often doubted product performance bicycle per se and later of different brands could be illustrated excellently in particular. Already in the 1910s drove the cyclists in the Tour de France is not in national teams, but as it is now in company teams. This illustrates the completely different development than in decades of amateur sports such as gymnastics, football and athletics.
In general, the cycling is considered by the turn of the century until the First World War by historians as the next to the boxes perhaps the most important and most popular spectator sport in general.
Cycling at the Olympics
The following cycling disciplines are or were held at the Olympic Games:
- Road cycling Road race (men: since 1896, women: since 1984)
- Individual time trial (men: since 1996 in the program; women: since 2000)
- Team time trial (men: 1960-1992 )
- Sprint (men: since 1896, women since 1988)
- Time trial ( women only in 2000, since 2004 as a discipline is no longer in the program)
- Individual pursuit (women: since 1992, from 2012 as a discipline is no longer in the program)
- Team Pursuit (men: since 1908, with interruptions)
- Points race (men: since 1984, women since 1996, from 2012 as a discipline is no longer in the program)
- Keirin (men: since 2000; women: from 2012)
- Team sprint (men: since 2000; women: from 2012)
- Two - team approach ( men: 2000-2008 )
- Omnium ( as of 2012 for both men and women)
- BMX Race