Born the son of a businessman and owner of the Royal pastry shop in Warsaw Eduard Strasburger Gottlieb, and his wife Anna Karoline von Schütz, he attended secondary school in Warsaw. His biology studies, he graduated from 1862-1864 in Paris and then in Bonn. After the death of his former teacher Hermann Schacht he was still an assistant in Jena in 1864. In 1866 he earned his doctorate at the University of Jena and two years later (1868 ) was his habilitation in Warsaw.
In 1869 he accepted a call to the University of Jena, where he initially associate professor, then professor of botany since 1871 was. In 1880 he was appointed to the Chair of Botany at the University of Bonn. 1891/92 he was rector of the university. His chair he held until his death in 1912.
Strasburger discovered the division of the plant cell nucleus and provided fundamental insights through his studies on "Construction and performing the pathways ", published in 1891. Along with his three colleagues Fritz Noll, Heinrich Schenck and Andreas Franz Wilhelm Schimper he founded the " Strasburger " in professional circles as " Bonner textbook" or also known as " Four men book" known ( first edition 1894), which is considered the standard textbook of botany today.
On November 26, 1891 Strasburger was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. In 1905 he was awarded the Linnean Medal of the Linnean Society of London. In 1899 he was a corresponding member of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences.
Strasburger was with Julie Alexandra ( " Alexandrine " ) Wertheim ( 1847-1902, T. d bankers Julius Wertheim 1817-1901 ) married, the couple had two children. His son was the internist Julius Strasburger, a grandson was the historian Hermann Strasburger.
- Textbook of botany for colleges. Fischer, Jena 1894 4th edition. Fischer, Jena, 1900. Digitized edition
- 5th edition. Fischer, Jena, 1902. Digitized edition
- 8th edition. Fischer, Jena, 1906 ( digitized )