Equatoguinean Spanish

The Equatorial Guinean Spanish is the modality of the Spanish language, which is spoken in the African nation of Equatorial Guinea. Characteristics of this modality are African elements in phonology, morphology and vocabulary.

Historical Brief Overview

See main article history of Equatorial Guinea

1778 the African continent offshore island of Fernando Poo (now: Bioko ) spanish, 1843, the Spaniards reached the mainland zone Río Muni (now Mbini ). 1884 acquired the Spanish island Annobón, 1900 then Río Muni. The colonization of the Spanish- Guinean zones were but only towards the end of the 19th century; 1968 Equatorial Guinea became independent.

In colonial times, the mission schools put special emphasis on the teaching of the Spanish language and those who went through such training, dominated usually the language in speech and writing. When the territory was allowed to manage themselves, ensured political decisions of a recovery of indigenous languages ​​and knowledge of the "correct" Spanish declined. Since 1979, Spanish the official language of Equatorial Guinea since 1982 and preferred language in education, work and culture, yet have since the 1970s, many Equatorial Guineans serious spelling problems. Today, Spanish is the second language of most of the population of Equatorial Guinea.

Today, Equatorial Guinea is the only state with the exception of belonging to Spain cities on the African Mediterranean coast ( Ceuta and Melilla), the only region of Africa, in which the Spanish ( in addition to the Portuguese and French ) is the official language. In contrast to the majority of the countries of Hispanic America, Spanish is not spoken in Equatorial Guinea from the majority of the population. The Spanish will be the official national language and is, like the French, used since 1997 for cross-cultural communication, while the native population, the majority of Bantu languages ​​are spoken by Fang and Jack. Yet today are mainly Nigerian, Cameroon, Gabon and South African students to Equatorial Guinea, there to improve their language skills.

Phonological features

In the Equatorial Guinean Spanish is in contrast to the " standard Spanish " phonetically no distinction between the double R [r] and simple R [ ɾ ], whereby minimal pairs such as carro (car) and caro (expensive) are homophonic. The sounds [b ], [ d ] and [ g] are always very occlusive, a implosives [ p], [k ] or [t ] can be sonorisiert.

( Standard Spanish: [ ʎ ] ) As in much of Hispanic America, the phenomena yeismo and Seseo, ie a non- distinction of ll exist and y ( [j ] ) or c before e / i or z ( standard Spanish: [ θ ] ) and s ( [s ] ). The [ ʎ ] is only weakly pronounced or omitted entirely. The [ x] varies between velar and aspirated pronunciation, the bilabial [ φ ] or [ θ ] f is pronounced.

Among the Bubi the r is pronounced guttural as in the French. The Ndowe that native speakers Ngumbi, it is often confusion between the [g ] and [ x] ( for example, instead of Gujar jugar ).

Morphosyntactic peculiarities

In Equatorial Guinea, the feminine article is used more often than the rest of the Spanish speaking world use and often omitted. The use of tú ("you " ) and Usted ("you", Ez ) and the Indicativo and Subjuntivo not subject to the same rules as in Spain. However, as in Spain ( "you" Mz ) is the vosotros ( " you ") and not in its place, as in Latin America, the polite form Ustedes generally used.

Spanish -language literature from Equatorial Guinea

The best-known Spanish-language writers from Juan Tomás Ávila Equatorial Guinea are Laurel, Antimo Esono, María NLS Angüe, Juan Balboa Boneke, Donato Ndongo - Bidyogo, Raquel Ilonbé, Constantino Ocha'a Mve Bengobesama and Leoncio Evita Enoy.

The origin of literary creation in Equatorial Guinea is located in the 1903 first published missionary magazine La Guinea Española, the first novel from that country Cuando los combes luchaban ( Novela de costumbres de la Guinea Española ) ( "When the Combé fought ( novel about the customs of Equatorial Guinea) ", 1953, Leoncio Evita Enoy ). 1962 saw Daniel Jones Mathamas Una lanza por el Boabi. Since the 1980s, a resurgence of Spanish-language literature of Equatorial Guinea is recognizable. Yet to be found in most anthologies of Spanish-speaking literature and African literature in European languages ​​no evidence of Spanish-speaking Equatorial Guinean works.