Faiyum Oasis

29.36666666666730.783333333333Koordinaten: 29 ° 22 '0 " North, 30 ° 47' 0" E

The Fayyum basin, also Fayoum, Fayum, Fayoum or Fayyum (Arabic الفيوم al - Fayyūm; Coptic pa iom " the lake "), an oasis -like pool in the government of al - Fayyum in Egypt (Africa).


The province has an area of 1827 km ². The population census in 2006 was 2,512,792. The square footage for the actual oasis pool fluctuate 1270-1700 km ². Of these, 1000 are cultivated.

The basin, located in the northeastern Egypt southwest of Cairo and west of the Nile, is surrounded on all sides by hills and mountain ranges, the ( " Catherine's mountain") to 353 m at the poolside in Jabal Katrina high, further rise in the hinterland but. It is a valley in which the Bahr Yusuf ( " Joseph's Canal " ) runs with the Nile Valley in conjunction.

While his south-eastern part is Fayyum at about 24 m height, the terrain of the Fayyum basin falls to the northwest into a depression from one to 45 m lying below sea area in which a 230 km ² and endorheic Lake Qarun has formed.


The Fayyum basin is considered the " vegetable garden of Cairo " and was in prädynastischer time a swamp. In the Middle Kingdom, these marshes were drained under the kings Amenemhat II and Senusret II to make the area into farming land.


An early settlement of the Neolithic Fayum A culture existed in the Faiyum Basin from about 4,500 BC

There was also described by Herodotus and Strabo maze of Pharaoh Amenemhat III 's mortuary temple of. from the 12th dynasty. He built in the necropolis Hawara Hawara the pyramid, which was preceded by the maze. The report cause it to more than 3000 ( Herodotus ) or more than 1500 ( Strabo ) 've had rooms and according to Herodotus, have " the upper rooms exceeded the measure of man's work ".

Ptolemy II had at the beginning of the 3rd century BC, to settle Greek veterans and so came to a successful economic development. Greek architects attached at the same time to an artificial reservoir that supplied enough water for a second crop in the spring. He subsequently produced 40 new locations throughout the basin.

A large number of temples were built. Later, you find some Coptic Temple added. The Coptic Monastery of Archangel Gabriel ( Deir el- Malak Ghobrial ), whose oldest parts date from the 5th century, is the most famous and up again today.


In the Fayyum basin there are numerous places, among which are: