The Gévaudan ( Occitan Gavaudan or Gevaudan ) called at his first mention of a region of Gaul, which was mainly in today's Lozère, and which was inhabited by belonging to the tribe of the Arverni Gabali, whose capital Anderitum, today Javols was.

The Gabali supported Vercingetorix in the battles against Julius Caesar, were assigned after the defeat of the province of Gallia Narbonensis and Nemausus (Nîmes ) ruled out, but were able to retain a degree of independence. The Romans called Anderitum in Gabalum order - resulting Javols was - what the surrounding area was then called in the Middle Ages as Pagus Gabalum.

After the death of Duke William I of Aquitaine in 918, three families quarreled over the succession: the Counts of Auvergne, Toulouse and Poitiers. The representatives of the Duke, the viscounts of southwestern France, acquired through this situation a relative independence that allowed them to make their office hereditary and to acquire the title of Count.

The county of Gevaudan, the so arose around 960, 1033 went to the Count Hugh of Rouergue from the house of Toulouse. After the death of Hugo's in 1053 his daughter Bertha had to fight for their heritage with Count William IV of Toulouse and his brother Raymond of Saint- Gilles. When Bertha died in 1065, the brothers turned against each other, and agreed only after 15 years of struggle that William Toulouse and Raimund should get the Margraviate of Gothia consisting of Rouergue, Gevaudan and the duchy of Narbonne. From 1085 was Raimund Count of Gevaudan, three years later he inherited the county of Toulouse.

The situation once again led to the strengthening of a number of vice- counties. End of the 11th century came with the Viscount Gilbert de Millau on a new Count of Gevaudan, after it had managed to bring three vice- counties and thus the entire Gévaudan in his hand. The Gévaudan was inherited by the Counts of Barcelona, by marriage, who became kings of Aragon. By the Treaty of Corbeil, the Gevaudan 1258 then came to France and was incorporated into the royal domain.

Louis VII gave the bishop then the power in the region by the bull royale du Gevaudan. The Gévaudan was divided into eight baronies, whose men were then found in the permanent rebellion against the bishop of Mende. In 1307 the king and the bishop entered into an agreement ( Traité de Pariage ), with whom she shared the income of the country. The bishop received the title of Count of Gevaudan, the right of coinage and the lower judiciary. Nominally owned the Gevaudan province to the Languedoc, but had until 1789 its own General.

As in 1790 in France, the departments were created, the Gévaudan was assigned to the Lozere department, with the exception of the canton Saugues, since the part of the department of Haute -Loire.