Heather Bunteule ( Anarta ( Anarta ) Myrtilli )
The Hadeninae are a subfamily of butterflies from the family of cutworms ( Noctuidae ).
The Hadeninae were originally characterized as trifine ( a special form of the veins of the fore wings ) Eulenfalter having a using a magnifying glass still visible pubescence of the compound eyes. This feature occurs but microscopically well as numerous other groups, in other subfamilies of cutworms, and therefore in a unique position of the subfamily is problematic on the basis of this feature. Kristensen (1998 ) defines the subfamily (without the Glottulinae ) with the following characteristics: trifine cutworms with a filamentary SD1 - bristle on the ninth abdominal segment with the caterpillars, Paramer ( a paired, highly structured appendage of the genitals) of the males near the center of the blades, and a silk gland at the caterpillars, which is at least twice as long as wide. With these features, however, is plesiomorphies that makes the subfamily at least in relation to the Noctuinae, Ufeinae and Glottulinae paraphyletic. Lafontaine and Fibiger (2006) consider the Hadeninae because of the short, fringed at the top spinning glands of caterpillars at least as probably monophyletic and represent the Glottulinae as Glottulini tribes in this subfamily. However, it is acknowledged that there are only a few features to the morphological differentiation of Noctuinae, Xyleninae and Hadeninae and further research using molecular genetic material is necessary.
Way of life
Pupation takes place in a chamber clad with silk mostly in the ground.
Overall, the family are attributed to about 1130 species. In Central Europe, 91 species are known. Currently, of Lafontaine and Fiebiger (2006 ), the following tribes and subtribe distinguished within the subfamily:
- Tribus Orthosiini Guenée, 1837
- Tribus Tholerini Beck, 1996
- Tribus Hadenini Guenée, 1837
- Tribus Leucaniini Guenée, 1837
- Tribus Eriopygini Fibiger & Lafontaine, 2005
- Tribus Glottulini Guenée, 1852
The subfamilies Noctuinae, Xyleninae and Hadeninae are related probably next and together form a sister group that is called " Noctuinae sl". Within this group are the Noctuinae with the Hadeninae probably turn a sister group. However, the phylogenetic relationships of the three subfamilies are compatible with each other, as yet not fully explored in relation to the other subfamilies of cutworms.
Hadeninae as pests
Some species are among the dreaded pests in agriculture. For example, the species of the genus Spodoptera cause everywhere in the tropics and subtropics in both dicots, monocots as well as to her sometimes by mass occurrences major crop failures. Species of the genus Mythimna, Sesamia, Mesapamea or Cerapteryx are pests of grasses, at which cereals are counted. In Europe, the Kieferneule ( Panolis flammea ) is worth mentioning due to their harmful effect on spruce monocultures.