Ave Maria ( Hail Mary) is the Latin beginning and at the same time the name of a basic prayer of the Catholic Church to the invocation of Mary, mother of Jesus Christ. Ave is in the Latin penetrated Semitic loanword and originates probably from Carthage ( Phoenician- Punic hawe means live ).
A substantially the Ave Maria prayer appropriate knows the Orthodox Church.
The invocation consists of two parts:
The Ave Maria belongs to the Lord's Prayer to the most widely spoken prayers of Christianity and is also part of the Angelus and the Rosary.
Eastern Orthodox form
The Ave Maria of the Eastern Church is:
Θεοτόκε Παρθένε, χαῖρε, κεχαριτωμένη Μαρία, ὁ Κύριος μετὰ σοῦ. εὐλογημένη σὺ ἐν γυναιξί, καὶ εὐλογημένος ὁ καρπὸς τῆς κοιλίας σου, ὅτι Σωτῆρα ἔτεκες τῶν ψυχῶν ἡμῶν.
Mother of God and Virgin, rejoice, highly gifted Mary, the Lord is with thee. Blessed art thou among women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb, because thou hast borne the Saviour of our souls.
West Church form
The Ave Maria of the Western Church, the Roman Catholic and the Anglican Church is:
Ave Maria, gratia plena, Dominus tecum. Benedicta tu in mulieribus, et benedictus fructus ventris tui, Jesus. Sancta Maria, Mater Dei, ora pro nobis peccatoribus nunc et in hora mortis nostrae. Amen.
Hail Mary, full of grace, the Lord is with thee. Blessed art thou among women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus. Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinners now and at the hour of our death. Amen.
This is the word blessed ( bless the infinitive ) the Germanized form of the Latin participle benedictus ( German: blessed; benedicere Inf ). In contrast to the German word " bless " can benedicere but not only mean the blessing encouragement from God to man, but also the act of worshiping individual petitioner or the community. Even God can so " blessed " ( adored, glorified ) be. Since there is no German equivalent to benedicere: are (literally speak well ), which takes into account both meanings, these Germanized form is often used instead of a translation.
Previously, it was the German version " Blessed art thou among women ," and there were versions in which it was said: " pray for us poor sinners, now and at the hour of our death."
The Ave Maria has been set to music by composers of all eras.
One of the most famous musical settings comes from Charles Gounod, who took over the first Prelude ( C major ) from the Well- Tempered Clavier by Johann Sebastian Bach and about his Ave Maria- melody presented ( under insertion of several additional measures), which is why the work as " Ave Maria by Bach / Gounod " went down in music history.
During the Renaissance, set to music the text under Nicolas Gombert others ( 1539), Josquin Desprez and Johannes Ockeghem. The Ave Maria by Pierre -Louis Dietsch is its spiritual paraphrase a secular chanson composer Jacob Arcadelt.
Other settings of the Latin text Ave Maria, there is Heinrich Schütz (SWV 334), Felix Mendelssohn (Op. 23 for 8- part choir, soloists and organ), Johannes Brahms (Op. 12 of 1860 ), Anton Bruckner, Luigi Cherubini, Georges Bizet, Marcel Dupré, Antonín Dvořák, Markus Koch, Morten Lauridsen, Michael Haller (Op. 60, No. 25 for male choir ), Sergei Rachmaninoff (op. 37 No. 6), Igor Stravinsky, Cesar Franck, Franz Liszt, Josef Rheinberger, Camille Saint- Saens, Hermann Schroeder, Ferruccio Busoni and Franz Biebl. Alfred Schnittke made the Ave Maria to a part of his Fourth Symphony (1984 ), which was written for countertenor, tenor, chamber choir and chamber orchestra.
The 1825 song composed by Franz Schubert Ellens third song (D 839, Op 52 No. 6) from his song cycle The Lady of the Lake begins with the words " Ave Maria ". Later arose, not from Schubert himself, many edits, in which the original lyric was replaced by the Latin Ave Maria prayer. The song is therefore often referred to as " Schubert's Ave Maria ".
In the Protestant church music tradition of the German text plays, especially in the Bible translation by Martin Luther, a role. In addition to his composition with Latin text, used those Heinrich Schütz ( with strings ) can be found in Hail, Mary, highly favored, in the Lesser clergy concerts II ( 1639 ) under the number SWV 333
In the church music of the Roman Catholic Church after the Second Vatican Council, the Ave Maria played in German language also playing an increasing role. Max Baumann created in 1982 his work Hail, Mary ( for voice and organ, op 101).
Other composers such as Giuseppe Verdi and Richard Wagner composed music under the use of the title Ave Maria, but they used completely different texts. A popular Ave Maria has this kind of writer Karl May to music ( in Serious Sounds, 1898). This romantic work is now sung by many choirs. In addition to the version with Latin text, Bizet's ' Ave Maria ' (WD 134) is also familiar as the setting of the French paraphrase Charles Grandmougins.
A Baroque composer Giulio Caccini erroneously attributed to composition in which, except for the words " Ave Maria " is omitted text comes from the Russian guitarist and composer Vladimir Vavilov. It was interpreted by different singers since its publication. The band E Nomine has added a piece of electronic music to Ave Maria for the album The Testament. A musical version of the Italian version of the text for choir a cappella by John X. Schachtner contributes to the autograph labeled as " Composed on the day of the death of John Paul II". Another modern Ave Maria using the Latin text was created by Bacio di Tosca.