An international court is a body of case-law, whose carriers are multiple states and / or international organizations. The judges have different nationalities and are elected by the makers of the court or its members.
Universal dishes are potentially open to all States. However, only the International Court applies the law of nations to without restriction to a particular contract system or on special matters.
- International Court of Justice in The Hague, established by the Charter of the United Nations on 26 June 1945.
- International Tribunal in Hamburg, built by the UNCLOS of 10 December 1982.
- Dispute Settlement Body of the World Trade Organization, established by the Dispute Settlement Understanding, an annex to the Agreement establishing the World Trade Organisation of 15 April 1994.
- Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague ( not a court in the strict sense ).
Dishes of regional economic integration and zones
In addition to the universal courts, there are numerous dishes of regional economic integration and zones. Its jurisdiction extends to a maximum of the scope of the contracts underlying the respective zones.
- European Court of Justice in Luxembourg.
- European Court of First Instance in Luxembourg.
- Court of Justice of the European Free Trade Association in Luxembourg.
- Court of the Commonwealth of Independent States in Minsk ( Belarus ).
- Court of Justice of the African Union. The founding act of the African Union in 2000 and an additional protocol of 2003 provided for the formation of this Court, which was never built due to lack of de facto ratification of the Additional Protocol. He is to be merged by a protocol from 1 July 2008 with the African Court of Human Rights and the rights of peoples to African Court of Justice and Human Rights; so far (as of 27 January 2011) was ratified Protocol of only three states.
- Court of Justice of the Andean Community in Quito ( Ecuador).
- Central American Court of Justice in Managua (Nicaragua ).
- Court of the Caribbean Community in Port of Spain (Trinidad and Tobago).
Courts of Human Rights
Courts for human rights have been established in the three continental human rights systems in Europe, America and Africa.
- European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg. This court was established by the European Convention on Human Rights, which had been prepared in the context of Europe.
- Inter-American Court of Human Rights in San José (Costa Rica). This court was established by the American Convention on Human Rights, which had been worked out in the framework of the Organization of American States.
- African Court on Human Rights and the rights of peoples in Arusha ( Tanzania). This court was established by an Additional Protocol of 1998 to the African Charter of Human Rights and the rights of nations, which had been worked out in the framework of the Organization of African Unity. He took in 2006 on his work. A protocol from 1 July 2008 it will the - will be merged Court of Justice of the African Union to the African Court of Justice and Human Rights - non-existent; the Protocol has thus far (as of 27 January 2011) ratified by only three states.
International criminal courts
- International Criminal Court in The Hague, established by the Rome Statute of 17 July 1998.
Ad hoc criminal tribunals of the United Nations
- International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia ( ICTY) in The Hague, established by Resolution 827 of the United Nations Security Council on 25 May 1993.
- International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda ( ICTR) in Arusha (Tanzania ) established by Resolution 955 of the UN Security Council on 8 November 1994.
- International Residualmechanismus for the ad hoc criminal tribunals established by Resolution 1966 of the UN Security Council of 22 December 2010 as the successor of the ICTY and ICTR.
A third generation of international criminal courts are so-called mixed - international, semi- international or hybrid criminal courts. They have both national and international law legal bases and are composed of national and international judges and judges together. The latter are mostly, but not always appointed by the United Nations. In most cases, these hybrid courts are part of the national court system; Carrier is then only the respective state.
- Courts in Kosovo, hybridized by UNMIK Regulations 2000 /6 of 15 February 2000 2000/34 of 27 May 2000 and 2000/64 of 15 December 2000.
- Serious Crimes Panels in the courts in Dili (East Timor ) established by UNTAET Regulation 2000/15 of 6 June 2000.
- Special Court for Sierra Leone in Freetown (Sierra Leone), established by an agreement dated 16 January 2002 between Sierra Leone and the United Nations.
- Khmer Rouge Tribunal in Phnom Penh (Cambodia), established by an agreement dated 6 June 2003 between Cambodia and the United Nations.
- War Crimes Chamber in the State Court in Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina).
- Supreme Iraqi Criminal Tribunal in Baghdad, which provides for the possibility of the participation of international judges, although it is not yet come to this.