Johann Siegfried Hufnagel

Johann Siegfried Hufnagel ( born October 17, 1724 in Falkenwalde, Circle Prenzlau, † February 23, 1795 in Langenfeld, Kreis Sternberg ) was a German priest and lepidopterist ( butterfly watchers ).


About Hufnagel's life you knew almost nothing until the late 20th century. Even his name was unknown. Only in 1987 succeeded Gerstberger and Stiesy, sure to identify it on the basis of the work of Fischer ( 1941) and to determine its life data as well as some biographical information.

Hufnagel came from a Protestant pastor's family; the father (Joachim Friedrich Hufnagel, * November 29, 1680 Prenzlau, † February 15, 1755 Falkenwalde, enrolled December 2, 1705 in Halle Wittenberg, 1713 Conrektor in Crossen, 1721-1755 pastor in Falkenwalde ) and grandfather ( Daniel Friedrich Hufnagel * August 16, 1650 Prenzlau, † May 24, 1701 Prenzlau, pastor at St. Nikolai ) and also the great-grandfather ( Vitus Hufnagel, * 1607 in Pegnitz / Franken, † July 15, 1666 in Prenzlau, pastor in Schönwerder ) were already been pastor. His studies he should have graduated from a university in the North or East Germany. After Berlin, he may in any case have come after the studies because Berlin at that time had no university. The address of Berlin leads Calendar 1759-1767 a " Hufnagel " or " Huffnagel ", the preceptor (teacher) to the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the Great Frederick hospital and orphanage and also lived in the orphanage. The agreement with the then usual career of young theologians who worked as a teacher until the beginning of their first location, and above all, the area occupied by fishermen first priest point Hufnagel strongly suggest that it is here to Lepidopterologen Johann Siegfried Hufnagel. The first pastor was replaced Hufnagel 1767 in Peter Berg ( circle Oststernberg; Jemiołów today, circle Swiebodzin, Poland). From 1775 to 1795 he was pastor in Langenfeld ( circle Oststernberg, today Długoszyn, Circle Sulecin, Poland). Both towns are located in the former Neumark (East Brandenburg).

Work and impact

Between 1765 and 1767 Hufnagel published thirteen papers on butterflies, of which ten in 1766, all in the magazine " Berlinisches magazine, or gesammlete [sic ] writings and news for lovers of Arzneywissenschaft, natural history, and the pleasant sciences in general." One of these activities was the pest dedicated, four contained descriptions of individual species that were discussed in some detail and also imaged, and the remaining eight were a tabular arranged processing of the larger Lepidoptera (mainly the Macrolepidoptera ) in the Berlin area, who knew Hufnagel and were represented in his collection. This series was often referred to by later authors briefly as " Tables ". The species descriptions in the tables are the form of representation according scarce and short. To make matters worse, that Hufnagel had known no system for naming the drawing elements of Lepidoptera and his descriptions thereby partly were hardly interpretable. For example, the diagnosis is for Phalaena grisea as follows: " The gray moth. Full yellowish gray with many scattered gray and brown spots. "

No later than mid-1770s must Hufnagel Baron SA of Rottemburg have met who lived in Klemzig at Züllichau (Neumark ). He left Hufnagel his collection together with detailed explanations of his publications. 1775 and 1776 published Rottemburg then a series of articles on Hufnagel's collection, in which he described in detail and for the first time identified many ways. Only this work, it is thanks to them that most of them can be identified by Hufnagel taxa. Some animals, however, were no longer present at this time in the collection; in other cases it seems to have come to confusion of species, so that not all ambiguities could be resolved. Although many were priority authorized by Hufnagel types, preferred the authors of the early 19th century to ignore these names or put them as uncommon or unsafe in synonymy and not more than Rottemburgs to accept more detailed descriptions. Only after Philipp Christoph Zeller had in 1844 carried out an analysis of Hufnagel's work, they were more widely known, and the name gradually began to come into use.

The fate of Hufnagel's collection is unknown. Unless it has been returned after processing to Hufnagel, they probably stayed within the family Rottemburgs and fell prey to the latest probably after Rottemburgs death of destruction.

According to the current state of the nomenclature are 87 of Hufnagel taxa as valid species names of European butterflies in use. In the zoological literature his name is abbreviated mostly as " Hufn. ".


  • Hufnagel [ as H == n == l] ( 1765 ): Description of a rare, previously unknown caterpillar, and the resulting Phaläne. - Berlinisches Magazine, 1 ( 6): 648-654, 1 pl
  • Hufnagel ( 1766a ): Table of the daily birds of the local area, to which those lovers of insects nature, time, place and other circumstances of the caterpillars and the resulting butterflies are determined. - Berlinisches Magazine, 2 ( 1): 54-90.
  • Hufnagel ( 1766b ): Natural history of iridescent or Schielervogels with its transformations. - Berlinisches Magazine, 2 ( 2): 111-131, 1 pl
  • Hufnagel [ as H - l] ( 1766c ): Zwote table worinnen the evening birds ( Sphinges linnaei ) appears, and which distinguished circumstances are described. - Berlinisches Magazine, 2 ( 2): 174-195.
  • Hufnagel [author not known ] ( 1766d ): Third Table of the night birds. - Berlinisches Magazine, 2 ( 4): 391-437.
  • Hufnagel [ as H === l] ( 1766e ): to destroy thoughts about the means, the harmful caterpillars. - Berlinisches Magazine, 3 ( 1): 3-19.
  • Hufnagel [author not known ] ( 1766f ): Fourth table from insects, or Table continued from the night birds this neighborhood, which comprehends the Zwote same class, namely the night owls ( Noctua's [sic ] ) in itself. - Berlinisches Magazine, 3 ( 2): 202-215.
  • Hufnagel [author not known ] ( 1766g ): Continuation of the fourth table of the insects, especially by those so-called night owls than the zwoten class of night birds this neighborhood. - Berlinisches Magazine, 3 ( 3): 279-309.
  • Hufnagel ( 1766h ): Zwote continuation of the fourth table of the insects, especially by those night owls so-called as the zwoten class of the night birds this neighborhood. - Berlinisches Magazine, 3 ( 4): 393-426.
  • [ Hufnagel ] ( 1766i ): description of a very colorful caterpillar on the oaks, and the resulting Phaläne Phalaena aprilina minor. - Berlinisches Magazine, 3 ( 6): 555-559, 1 pl.
  • Hufnagel [ as "H --- l" ] ( 1766k ): description of a rare and particularly beautiful Phaläne. ( Phalaena pyritoides. ). - Berlinisches Magazine, 3 ( 6): 560-562.
  • Hufnagel ( 1767a ): Table continued from the night birds, which includes the 3rd kind of the same, namely, the spread diameter ( Phalaenas geometra [sic ] linnaei ). - Berlinisches Magazine, 4 (5): 504-527.
  • Hufnagel ( 1767b ): III. Table continued from the night birds, which includes the 3rd kind of the same, namely, the spread diameter ( Phalaenas geometra [sic ] linnaei ). - Berlinisches Magazine, 4 ( 6): 599-626.

Biographical sources

  • O. Fischer: Evangelical pastor book for the Mark Brandenburg since the Reformation. E. S. Mittler & Sohn, Berlin, 1941.
  • M. Gerstberger, L. Stiesy: Butterflies in West Berlin. Part II Förderkreis the science museums of Berlin eV, Berlin 1987.
  • Naturalist
  • Entomologist
  • Lepidopterist
  • The Lutheran minister (18th century)
  • German
  • Born in 1724
  • Died in 1795
  • Man