Fruit juice, fruit juice and special, is a product obtained from fruit of one or more types of fruit, liquid product which is intended for human consumption. The fruit content must be 100 %. A distinction is made between direct juice and fruit juice from concentrate. In the latter fruit juice is concentrated on the country of origin and diluted back in the target country to save costs during transport. Be distinguished from fruit juice fruit nectars and fruit drinks, in which other ingredients may be added.
According to the EU directive relating to fruit juices and certain similar products intended for human consumption of 20 December 2001, as last amended on 21 May 2012 Juice is the fermentable but unfermented, obtained from healthy and ripe fruit of one or more kinds of products, which is intended to be marketed as foods on the market. Color, aroma and taste of the juice are characteristic of the corresponding fruit or the corresponding fruit. The fruit content is 100%. In order to save transport costs, is concentrated by the physical removal of water in the country of origin in fruit juice from concentrate fruit juice and diluted back again later. Fruit juice from concentrate must be the same organoleptic and analytical characteristics as the corresponding juice.
The labeling of all packaged foods, the regulations of the food labeling regulation. Mandatory information is trade name, manufacturer's specification, quantity, expiry date, batch number and the list of ingredients. Special labeling for fruit juice fruit juice regulates the Regulation. For products manufactured from only one crop ingredient of the word "fruit" should be replaced with the name of the crop. For fruit juices from two or more fruits, the fruits used, in descending order of the volume of the fruit juice used must be specified.
Juice: mature, clean, fresh and preserved fruits are used for fruit juice production. Citrus fruits are pressed in special juicers. Other fruits are ground in a mill to mash, which is then pressed out mechanically. Special enzymes may facilitate the leakage of juice from the cells and increase the juice yield. In stone fruit and soft fruit the stones and stalks are removed before pressing. By centrifugation and filtration arises from the flesh -containing juice first naturally cloudy, a clear fruit juice.
Fruit juice from concentrate: After juicing first flavors are extracted, so they are not lost during the subsequent evaporation of the juice. The water is removed under vacuum conditions. The concentrate can be stored and transported economically. To get from the concentrate juice again, optionally added pulp and cells water and blocks the fruit flavor as well. Besides the advantage of cost savings for transporting the producers are independent of the harvest season by this method. For the preservation of the juice for a few seconds at 85 ° C is pasteurized.
Fruit nectars and fruit drinks
Fruit nectars and fruit drinks differ from fruit juice by a lower juice content, which is achieved by dilution with water. Moreover, the addition of sugar or honey is common.
Fruit nectar: Some fruits have naturally so much fruit acid or fruit flesh, that they may not be offered as a fruit juice but only as nectar. The statutory minimum content of fruit juice or fruit pulp, depending on crop type at least 25 % (eg currant, banana, mango) to 50 % ( elderberry, quince, peach). Fruit nectar can contain up to 20 % of the total weight of sugar or honey.
Fruit drinks are not subject to Regulation fruit juice, but are described in the guidelines for soft drinks of the German food book. The fruit content should be up 30% ( apples, pears, grapes), depending on the crop at least 6% ( citrus). In addition to sugar and flavorings for flavoring may be added.
Ingredients and additives
For all foods, the ingredients used must be specified. For direct juices and juices from concentrate to correct a sour taste ( Korrekturzuckerung ) No sugar may be added since 2012. After transfer of the EU Directive in the laws of the Member States which allow the Korrekturzuckerung was possible, the German juice producers were increasingly confronted with fruit juices that were nachgezuckert to a considerable extent. Since German juices contain added sugars traditionally no correction, so they wanted to - identify - in contrast to the other juices. Therefore, increasingly uses the term " no sugar added " by. This note on the packaging is voluntary, meaning that really no additional sugar - no sugar correction - is contained in the juice. The sugar to fruit juices are no longer permitted by the EU Directive 2012/12/EU fruit juice and fruit juice - it changed German Regulation since 31 October 2013.
However, there are a variety of substances that are not considered as an ingredient. These substances, often called additives and auxiliaries, do not appear in the list of ingredients of foods, but may still be added, as well as fruit juices. In addition to the fruit juice from concentrate all the ingredients that are essential to the restoration of the original state, also not be listed on the package. Furthermore, the Edit with gelatine and other substances such as enzymes, tannins, aromas and the " fining " bentonite allowed ( cf. Appendix. 4 No. 2 and No. 4 FrSaftErfrischGetrV ).
Key figures of the fruit juice industry
In 2012, the Germans drank 33.2 liters of juice and nectar from fruits and vegetables. Thus, they are the European leader ahead of Norway ( 31.9 liters ) and Finland ( 29.5 liters) and are well above the EU average ( 20.6 liters). The consumption has declined slightly since 2003. The most popular fruit juices in Germany are apple and orange juice with an average per capita consumption of 8.5 and 7.8 liters ( 2012). Of importance also multivitamin juice are (3.8 liters) and grapes and pineapple juice ( with 0.8 or 0.5 liters ).
The approximately 380 German Fruit Juice Manufacturers processed in 2012 about 900,000 tons of fruit and put it 3.7 billion liters of fruit juice, nectars and fruit drinks ago. The 7,500 employees thus generated a turnover of 3.9 billion euros.
Major manufacturers of fruit juices and fruit nectar (without vegetable juices )
Source: Getränke-Info/Hohmann/Kelch, June 2012, * estimated data