Julius Edgar Lilienfeld
Life and work
Lilienfeld's father was the lawyer Sigmund Lilienfeld, his mother Sarah Jampoler Lilienfeld. Julius Edgar Lilienfeld graduated in Lviv, the secondary school and enrolled in 1899 as a student of the Technical College of Charlottenburg for the study of mechanical engineering one. After a year he moved for the period 1900-1904 at the Friedrich Wilhelm University in Berlin, where he was enrolled at the faculty of philosophy, but mainly experimental physics studied ( including among Ferdinand Georg Frobenius, Jacobus Henricus van ' t Hoff, Johannes garlic (1855-1915), Max Planck and Emil Warburg ).
In 1902 he published an essay " attempt at a strict version of the concept of mathematical probability " in the "Journal of Philosophy and philosophical criticism." He was born on February 18, 1905 on the basis of the thesis: PhD "On a general and sensitive method for the excellent spectral qualitative elemental analysis of gas mixtures". From 1905 he worked at the Institute of Physics of the University of Leipzig and worked there, inter alia, to the production of liquefied gases. In 1910 he completed his habilitation on "The conduction of electricity in the extreme vacuum ". At this time he worked intensively with the generation of x-rays and had patents on the Lilienfeld - tube, which was known as the Coolidge tube.
In 1919 he first described a visible to the human eye gray - white radiation in X-ray tubes, which was named after him " Lilienfeld radiation". You could be later explained as a form of transition radiation, which was described in 1946 by Vitaly Ginsburg and Ilya Mikhailovich Frank Lasarevich.
He invented in 1925 the field effect transistor. Although necessary for the construction of a functional transistor pure semiconductor material was missing at that time, he described the design and function of transistors already accurate. RG Arns cites the work of Bret Crawford (1991 ), who claims to have found signs that Lilienfeld patented by him elements also could have built. It is also proven that the U.S. developer of the transistor knew the corresponding Lilienfeld 's patents. Documents prove that William B. Shockley and Pearson functioning transistors have built based on the patents of Lilienfeld and Oskar Heil. They refrained to mention these basic Lilienfeld 's patents in its publications, later research reports or historical reports.
1927 emigrated Lilienfeld also because of the growing anti-Semitism finally to the United States, which he knew from previous work stays here already. On 2 May 1926, he had married Beatrice Ginsburg, they lived in Winchester (Massachusetts), Lilienfeld was head of Ergon Research Laboratories in Malden (Mass. ).
Lilienfeld in 1934 was a citizen of the United States.
Since 1989 Julius Edgar Lilienfeld Prize is awarded, in 1988, donated by the widow, Beatrice Lilienfeld.
Patents ( selection)
Lilienfeld had 15 German and 60 U.S. patents.
- Patent CA272437: Electric Current Control Mechanism. Remember on October 22, 1925 published on 19 July 1927 Inventor: Julius Edgar Lilienfeld (entry at the Canadian Patent Office).
- Patent US1745175: Method and Apparatus For Controlling Electric Currents. Published on January 28, 1930 Inventor: Julius Edgar Lilienfeld.
- Patent US1900018: Device for controlling electric current. Registered on 28 March 1928 Inventor: Julius Edgar Lilienfeld (thin film MOSFET).
- Patent US1877140: Amplifier for electric currents. Remember on December 8, 1928 Inventor: Julius Edgar Lilienfeld ( semiconductor version of the vacuum tube).
- Patent US2013564: Electrolytic condenser. Remember on August 29, 1931 Inventor: Julius Edgar Lilienfeld ( electrolytic capacitor ).