Lancaster House Agreement

The Lancaster House Agreement of 21 December 1979, the international legal basis of the independence of Zimbabwe. It is a result of the London Conference at Lancaster House to which the British government invited the contending parties. Attended by the delegations of the Bishop Abel Muzorewa ( Rhodesia ), Robert Mugabe and Joshua Nkomo of ( ZANU and ZAPU ) and the United Kingdom under Peter Carington, 6th Baron Carrington. These negotiations took place in the wake of the Conference of Heads of Government of the Commonwealth in Lusaka from 1 to 7 August 1979 after the British government Bishop Muzorewa and the leaders of the Patriotic Front, Mugabe and Nkomo to a constitutional conference in the Lancaster House invited.


The conference was opened under the chairmanship of Lord Carrington, Minister for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, on 10 September 1979, closed after 47 plenary sessions on 15 December 1979. In these negotiations, the conference reached consensus on the following points:

  • Principles of a new constitution
  • Agreements for the period before independence
  • A ceasefire agreement among the conflicting parties

In addition, agreement was reached on the following points:

  • The authority of the governor is accepted by all sides
  • To maintain the " independence constitution "
  • The parties submit to the agreements from the pre-independence era
  • To maintain the cease-fire agreement
  • Leading the campaign peacefully and without intimidation
  • To renounce violence to achieve political goals
  • To recognize the election results and to allow the armed forces under their command do the Corresponding

The " independence constitution " said 20 % of parliamentary seats to the whites.

The three months of negotiations could obtain no consensus on the question of land reform. Mugabe was under pressure to succeed and the land question was at the end of the question of success or failure of the conference. The British and American governments offered to buy land from the whites, and a fund has been set up for it, which should clarify the issue of land from 1980 to 1990. In fact, then 70,000 landless farmers were served with more than 20,000 sq km land. In addition, £ 630 million has been pledged to help.

For authorized inspector for the implementation of the results of the British Lord Christopher Soames was appointed.

The Delegation of the United Kingdom

  • Lord Carrington (Chairman)
  • Sir Ian Gilmour Bt
  • Sir Michael Havers
  • Lord Harlech
  • Richard Luce
  • Sir M. Palliser
  • Sir A. Duff
  • D. M. Day
  • R. A. C. Byatt
  • R. W. Renwick
  • P. R. N. Fifoot
  • N. M. Fenn
  • G. G. H. Walden
  • C. D. Powell
  • P. J. Barlow
  • R. D. Wilkinson
  • A. M. Layden
  • R. M. J. Lyne
  • M. J. Richardson
  • C. R. L. de chassiron
  • A. J. Phillips
  • M. C. Wood

The delegation of Mugabe and Nkomo

  • Robert Mugabe - future prime minister of Zimbabwe
  • Joshua Nkomo - ZAPU leader
  • Josiah Mushore Chinamano - ZAPU leader, future Minister
  • Edgar Tekere - future minister, later Mugabe critic
  • General Josiah Tongogara, ZANLA - General, the militant wing of ZANU
  • Ernest R Kadungure, ZAPU, future Secretary of State for Finance
  • Dr. H. Ushewokunze - first Minister of Health
  • Farai Mutumbuka - future Erziehungminsiter
  • Josiah Tungamirai - future head of the Air Force.
  • Edson Zvobgo - Lawyer, a Harvard degree, future Minister, conflict with Mugabe on press freedom, buried as a national hero.
  • S. Mubako
  • W. Kamba
  • Joseph Msika - ZAPU leader, interned together with Nkomo, future Vice President
  • T George Silundika - militant ZAPU leader in exile
  • A. M. Chambati
  • John Nkomo
  • L. Baron
  • S. K. Sibanda
  • E. Mlambo
  • C. Ndlovu
  • E. Siziba

The delegation of the Bishop Muzorewa

  • Bishop Abel Muzorewa
  • Dr. S. C. Mundawarara
  • E. L. Bull
  • F. Zindoga
  • D. C. Mukome
  • G. B. Nyandoro
  • Ndabaningi Sithole
  • L. Nyemba
  • K. Ndiweni
  • Z. M. Bafanah
  • Ian Smith - leaders of the former white minority government
  • D. C. Smith
  • R. Cronje
  • C. Andersen
  • Dr. J. Kamusikiri
  • G. Pincus
  • L. G. Smith
  • Vice- Marshal of the Air Force H. Hawkins
  • Dr. E. M. F. Chitate
  • D. Zamchiya
  • S. V. Mutambanengwe
  • M. A. Adam
  • P. Claypole