- Uralic Finno - Ugric Volga Finnish Mordvin ( Ersjanisch, Moksha )
- Myv ( Ersjanische language )
- Mdf ( Mokschanische language )
The Mordvinian languages ( Mordvin мокшэрзянь, mokschersjan, mokšèrzjan ' ) belong to the Volga- Finnish group of the Finno -Ugric languages. They are spoken in the eastern part of European Russia from the Mordvins, but live less than a third as titular nation in the Republic of Mordovia. At the last census of the Soviet Union in 1989, 67 % of the approximately 1.2 million Mordvins to use Mordvin as their mother tongue. The closest relative is the Mari.
As part of the Joint Programme " Minorities in Russia: Developing Culture, Language, Media and Civil Society " of Europe, the European Commission and Russia were submitted four project applications in Mordovia, aimed at promoting the ersänischen and mokschanischen language to the target.
The Mordvinian has developed some very different in different main dialects in the 8th century. Today there are still important
- The Ersjanische ( Ersänisch, Ersja, эрзянь, ersjan, èrzjan ') and
- The Mokschanische ( Moksha, мокшень, mokschen, mokšen ').
Both have established themselves as literary languages . The Schokscha dialect is spoken by only a few speakers, the Terjuchische and Karataiische have gone out with the complete assimilation of the speaker with Russians and Tatars.
The vocabulary of the Mordovian is rich in Russian borrowings, at the same time can also be numerous loanwords from Turkic and Iranian languages find out.
The Mordvinian typically knows no grammatical gender, and any products and is an agglutinating language, but in the almost exclusively used suffixes ( in contrast to other Finno -Ugric languages where prefixes are also used).
In Ersjanischen the Mordvinian eleven has, in Mokschanischen twelve case:
There is no possessive pronoun, the ownership is instead indicated by attachment of possessive suffixes:
Like other Finno- Ugric languages knows the Mordvinian no verb for have. The possession of a thing instead by use of the verb to be (on the completely dispensed usually in the present tense), the addition of Possessivsuffixes and the use of the genitive, the owner is expressed: Home - кудо; I have a house - монь кудом ( lit. with me is a house )