Progress (spacecraft)

Progress (Russian Прогресс for progress ) is a Russian, derived from Soyuz unmanned and non-reusable space shuttle, the mid -1970s (experimental design bureau -1, now RKK Energia ) developed by OKB -1 Korolyov for the supply of space stations of the Salyut series been. Later, it was served with Progress and the Mir space station. Today, the Progress cargo launch to the International Space Station (ISS). As support the Soyuz rocket is.


Progress basically consists of three modules: The derived from the Soyuz orbital module pressurized cargo section (Progress GO = GRUZOVOI otsek / Russian Грузовой отсек ) with air lock, the tank section (Progress OKD = Otsek komponentov dozapravki / russ.Отсек компонентов дозаправки ) and the service module (Progress PAO = Priborno - agregatniy otsek / russ. Приборно - агрегатный отсек ) with the engines and the power supply for Progress.

Progress has no return capsule and is loaded after filling the space station and the unloading of the cargo with garbage in order to burn up in the Earth's atmosphere. To avoid having to launch a Soyuz for each sample return from the Mir, the return module VBK - Raduga, ( VBK Vozvrashchaemaya ballisticheskaya kapsula / Russian Возвращаемая баллистическая капсула ) has been developed which can carry about 150 kg payload back to Earth.


Progress currently serves as supplies for the International Space Station. Average of four transporters are started each year.


Mid -1970s has been developed an unmanned cargo variant of the Soyuz 7K- T, which was named Progress. The first launch took place on 20 January 1978 on the space station Salyut 6 in the 1980s, was designed with Progress M is a new variant of the cargo ship, this now based on the Soyuz - T spacecraft and was launched for the first time in 1989 to Mir. Later Progress M was used on the ISS. 2000 followed with a further modification of Progress M1 ship, this time the fuel carrying capacity of the cargo has been increased. Currently, the ISS is powered by Progress -M spacecraft, Progress- M1 tankers are used only when necessary.

On 26 November 2008 a Progress spacecraft of the new version of Progress M- 01M ( GRAU index: 11F615A60 ) was started. This has replaced the previous analog flight control system argon -16 triple- redundant digital flight control systems ZWN -101 ( with RISC 3081 processor ) and a miniaturized radio telemetry system Mbits. The new systems allow a faster and more efficient flight control and save 75 kg one to ground.

A total of 45 Progress spacecraft have so far been used to supply the ISS (as of January 2012).

The 44th Flight ( Flight 44P ) was killed August 24, 2011 and crashed, prompting further launches of Soyuz rockets have been suspended pending resolution of the cause of the crash.

On 30 October 2011, the next Progress was successfully launched and reached the International Space Station.


  • Length: 7.48 m
  • Maximum diameter: 2.72 m
  • Mass: 7020 kg
  • Payload: 2315 kg, of which a maximum of 975 kg of fuel.
  • First flight: January 20, 1978 ( Progress 1 to Salyut 6 )
  • Last flight: May 5, 1990
  • Number of successful start: 42, of which 12 to Salyut 6
  • 12 to Salyut 7
  • 18 for me

Progress M

  • Length: 7.23 m
  • Maximum diameter: 2.72 m
  • Mass: 7450 kg
  • Payload: 2350 kg, of which a maximum of 1200 kg fuel
  • First flight: August 23, 1989 (Progress M 1 for me )
  • Last flight: July 24, 2009 (Progress M 67 to the ISS deorbit 27 September 2009)
  • Power supply: solar cells and batteries

Progress M1

  • Length: 7.2 m
  • Maximum diameter: 2.72 m
  • Mass: 7150 kg
  • Payload: 2230 kg, of which a maximum of 1950 kg fuel
  • First flight: February 1, 2000 ( Progress M1-1 to I ), currently in use
  • Power supply: solar cells and batteries

Progress M- M

  • Length: 7.2 m
  • Maximum diameter: 2.72 m
  • Mass: 7150 kg
  • Payload: 2425 kg
  • First flight: November 26, 2008 ( Progress M- 01M to the ISS ), currently in use
  • Power supply: solar cells and batteries

As of 2015, are to be used further developed Progress -MS spaceships. These are to be distinguished among other things by a new approach and docking system price -NA and an additional meteorite protection from the previous version.

Flight time

With Progress M 16M (July 2012), Progress M 17M ( October 2012 ) and Progress M 18M ( February 2013 ) was reached a drastically shortened flight time to the space station ISS from about 6 hours compared to about 50 hours at previous flights. The three flights were tests for the new tracks that will be used in 2013 for the manned spacecraft Soyuz type.

" The process was possible because the flight path of the International Space Station can be better adapted to these maneuvers since 2012. In particular, the orbital period can thereby regulate so that there is one overflight of the station over Kazakhstan in about three days distance at which the orbital plane intersects the launch site when the station is about 30 degrees ahead. "


After a re-entry not verglühende debris of the space shuttle to be sunk in an area of the South Pacific. This area is called polemical "the graveyard of spaceships ," among others drowned in this sea area remains of more than 60 space freighters and also about 40 tons of disused space station Mir.