S'micha ( סְמִיכָה, hang up ( the hands) ), also s'micha le_Rabbanut ( סְמִיכָה לְרַבָּנוּת, rabbinical End) or s'michut ( סְמִיכוּת, Launch) called in Judaism, the formal establishment of a rabbi. By Semicha the permission is granted to make valid decisions on matters of religious law, halakha.
The laying on of hands constituted a chain of transmission ( teaching ) authority that begins with Moses and the 70 elders. The passage in question reads:
This Place on level (s), this ( last ) transmission means the Hebrew root of Semicha. Conventional wisdom Jewish authorities is the chain of transmission at Moses had its beginning sometime off in the time of Hillel haNasi in the 4th century.
A statement by the Maimonides accordingly, giving the effect that a unanimous confirmation by all the wise men in Israel one of the original Semicha power of attorney and thus restitute the chain of events could again ( Hilchos Sanhedrin 4:11 ), there have been several attempts over the years, the original Semicha restore.
In the Middle Ages came back ( probably under the influence of Christian universities) the practice of giving Semicha not only by laying on of hands, but. By a written document, according to a diploma This practice was previously under the Geonim, the leaders of the Babylonian Jewry, was common.
Semicha of the Israeli Chief Rabbinate
The Chief Rabbinate of Israel issued three types of Semicha for persons who have passed the appropriate examinations:
- Jore Jore - Tests on the Halachos (laws) of Shabbat Eruv, Nidda, Mikvah, Kashrut, and the mourning laws
- Rav Ha -Ir (city rabbi ) - Tests on the remaining part Orach Chaim laws and Jore Dea of the Shulchan Aruch, which are now relevant
- Jadin Jadin - Tests on the Halachot from the financial sector (included in part Hoshen Mishpat of the Shulchan Aruch ), as well as marriage and divorce law (included in part even Häser the Shulhan Arukh ). Upon completion of the " Jadin Jadin " exam will be awarded the title Dayan (Hebrew judge).
Semicha in sacrificial service
In another meaning Semicha designated in the temple service, the laying or pressing of hands on the sacrificial animal, which symbolizes the sins of the offerer were known and pronounced upon the animal.
Semicha for women
Women is the Semicha open the liberals, progressives and conservatives Judaism, while it is not possible women in the Orthodox and ultra-Orthodox Judaism.
Situation in Germany
In the German Judaism rabbis are used by a Semicha after a scientific training or studying at a Talmud school in their office. This training is for Liberal Judaism at the Abraham Geiger College in collaboration with the University of Potsdam. Training institution for Orthodox rabbis is the Rabbinical Seminary, founded in 2009 in Berlin.
On 13 and 14 September 2006 were liberal rabbis in the New Synagogue in Dresden for the first time since the end of World War II re- ordained in Germany. The first ordination ceremony took place in Germany for Orthodox Judaism on June 2, 2009 in Munich, in the synagogue of the Jewish community of Munich and Upper Bavaria instead.