Semitic root

A radical, in German also called Wurzelkonsonant referred to in the Semitic consonants as a part of basic for the Semitic languages ​​model structure.

Arabic Language

In Arabic most words is based on a dreiradikalige root. Such a root may consist of all consonants - these are all letters of the alphabet except the Alif, but including Hamza - are formed. The word formation arises from the fact that certain prefixes, infixes or suffixes are added. As a classic example, the root ك ت ب, DMG is k -t -b:

  • كتب / kataba - write ( verb)
  • كتاب / kitāb - Book
  • كاتب / Katib - Schreiber, cry Bender ( active participle )
  • مكتوب / Maktub - letter, document ( passive participle )
  • مكتب - Desk
  • مكتبة / Maktaba - library, bookstore

All derivatives of a root thus form a kind of a " word family " within which the order of the root consonants never changes.

In most cases, the root of three consonants, and there are also roots with four so-called " vierradikalige roots ".

The root structure is also for the Arab conjugation of great importance, since the different verb forms ( verb stems called ) are derived from it and always follow the same pattern. The verb stems are usually numbered with Roman numerals. In addition to those referred to here stems I to X and XI to XV strains, which in modern Arabic are even more than already in classical Arabic but disuse exist. The usual example in Arabic root ف ع ل / f - ʿ - l, as a basic form of the third person is male singular perfect active use.

This model can also be from the root ك ت ب the different verb forms derived:

  • I. كتب / kataba - write (actually he wrote )
  • II كتب / kattaba - can write
  • III. كاتب / KATABA - correspond
  • IV أكتب / aktaba - dictate
  • V. تكتب / takattaba - not common
  • VI. تكاتب / takātaba - write to each other
  • VII انكتب / inkataba - enroll
  • VIII اكتتب / iktataba - write off
  • IX. اكتب / iktabba - not common
  • Ask to write - X. استكتب / istaktaba

As can be seen, the different verb forms have different meanings, but are in close contact with the Grundverb. However, one meaning relation to Grundverb is not always seen in other cases. The example also shows that on the basis of the basic model theoretically such verbs can be derived, which are not in use.

Hebrew language

Even in the ancient Hebrew grammar is the majority of the words dreiradikalige a root structure that can be formed from all the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. The Konjugationsmodell the Hebrew verbs was acquired by Hebrew grammarians in the early Middle Ages from the Arabic grammar. With seven strains ( Heb. binjaním, lit " buildings " ), it is somewhat simpler than its model, but follows the same pattern.

As an example of the derivation of ways a Hebrew root is here also the term for writing, hebrew כתב ( Katav ) indicated, with various verbal and nominal derivations:

  • Lichtów ( 1 strain): Write derived therefrom: michtáw: letter; këtówet: address, address
  • Kitúw: Labeling
  • Hachtawá: Dictation
  • Hitkatwút: Correspondence