Sneferka (aka Hor - Snefer - ka), also Nefersieka, the Horus name of an ancient Egyptian king hardly occupied ( Pharaoh ) in the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt, whose precise chronological placement is proved to be contentious.

About the Name

Sneferkas name is the subject of various readings and interpretations because of each other be different spellings of his name in royal Serechs. For example, it reads Zahi Hawass as Nefer - Sieka. Toby Wilkinson and Wolfgang Helck, however, read " Sneferka ". Francesco Tiradritti reads " Neferka - it ".


The ruler is only known by a small number of stone vessels. Sneferkas inscriptions are found primarily in slate and alabaster bowls, one of which comes from the grave of Merka at Saqqara, dating again under Qaa. A second was found in Djoserkomplex and a third comes from the Georges- Michailidis collection. Sneferkas name appears on the last artifact without Horus falcon and authenticity of the artifact is doubted by experts. In a mastaba found in 2005 at Saqqara is Sneferkas name appear more than once, but the findings have not previously been published.


Texts located next Sneferkas Serechs name names of institutions, which are also for King Qaa, probably the last ruler of the 1st Dynasty, occupied, namely "Divine palace " ( the Egyptian name ah - netjer ) and " surveys of the Gods" ( the Egyptian name qau - Netjeru ). This includes, for example, Peter Kaplony that a temporal proximity to Qaa is to be assumed. He suspects that Sneferka either reigned for a very short time before Qaa or that it might have been in " Sneferka " to a second Horus name of Qaa that this was only a very short time.

In addition, there are two vessel fragments with the name of unspecified "King Bird ", which probably falls into the same reign as Sneferka. After Wolfgang Helck and Peter Kaplony it could have come between bird and Sneferka to the throne disputes, culminating in the fact that the royal cemetery at Abydos was closed and even plundered public. Corresponding traces and finds were discovered by Walter Bryan Emery. This would also explain why the one hand, rulers Listings on stone vessels end abruptly with Qaa and on the other the royal burial was transferred to Sakkara. The founder of the dynasty and second putative successor of Sneferka, Hetepsechemui, maybe went with military force against the two rulers before, triumphed, leaving at least the grave of Qaa get ready again. This assumption is supported by the Horus name of the Hetepsechemui. This had its name emphasizes two halves of the country of Egypt dedicated, according to George Reisner and Dietrich Wildungsmauer he would have had no reason to do so, the transition from first to second dynasty would have been really smoothly. Wolfgang Helck throws a supplement that Sneferka and " Bird" was apparently banned from the later records because of their Illegimität because their power struggles, the dynasty could perish.

Kim Ryholt is convinced Sneferka could have prevailed between Ninetjer Khasekhemwy and his name was in later king lists listed (except in Abydos ) under the name cartridges Neferkare I. Aaka respectively. He points out that writers of the Ramesside era had the habit at royal name earlier dynasties that were constructed similar to those during their lifetime, add the sun disk of Re, although they should have known that this is not at such an early time was common, especially as the sun god Re was raised only during the 3rd dynasty to an independent deity.

In much the same direction and Aidan Dodson, who tends Sneferka a veritable reign of lightning just a few months awards and mentions it between Ninetjer and Khasekhemwy. He makes reference to the vessel fragments with Sneferkas names whose labels appear to have been nearly all attached to " shave ". Sneferka should therefore usurped the vessels of Qaa and whose names are replaced by his own. This fact confirms, according to Dodson is a much later date than previously assumed government for Sneferka. Toby Wilkinson also points to the vessel erasures and Sneferkas absence in Ramesside king lists, but may not be set quite know whether Sneferka has been an actual usurper or only the alternative name of Qaa.

Francesco Tiradritti however, considers it possible that Sneferka in reality was a queen, who ran for a short time, the business of government for their still- infant son. He bases his exposition of each other with the different constellation of hieroglyphs in Serech, from which a reading as " Neferka - it " offering.