List of pharaohs

The list of Pharaohs provides a systematic overview of all previously known Pharaohs. It contains the kings of Egypt from the predynastic period to Maximinus Daia, the last ruler of Egypt Hieroglyphic testified.

The key data that form the backbone of the Egyptian chronology, derived from the writings of the Egyptian priest Manetho, lost the originals and only by quotations in writings have survived from the first to the eighth century AD. Manetho's division into 30 dynasties is still the foundation of Egyptology, although it is outdated in many respects. A special feature is that Manetho ordered the dynasties after the local origin of the ruler and not on family relations.

The names of the kings are partially specified here in the Egyptian, partly in the Greek form. The annual data take into account the works of Thomas Schneider ( Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs ), and Wolfgang Helck. The data in parentheses indicate the date by Jürgen von Beckerath ( Chronology of pharaonic Egypt) again.

Reference

Deviating data within the articles on individual pharaohs can not be avoided by different sources ( literature ) of the individual authors.

List of Pharaohs

Conventions

The names in this list are written according to the writing conventions of the portal Egyptology. These provide that the proper name of a pharaoh be, but written without the rest of his name with hyphens. Some pharaohs are, however, better known under her throne as her own name. See the writing conventions that in these cases that the names are written in the article headlines without hyphens. Hence the appropriate links in this list are also written without hyphens.

All names hyphenated spelling of the letters and the first letter of the names of gods syllable is always capitalized, regardless of whether there is independent of the latter at the end (user -ka- Re) or within the name ( Sekhem -Re - sanches - taui ). This rule also applies if, instead of Re, the deities Amun, Hor, courage, Ptah and / or other material contained in the name.

Since the word syllable maat in the name is first and foremost stands for the principle of world order and not for the deity in person, this syllable should at hyphen spelling of the name in question in the texts always written in lower case are ( Heru -Hor -maat, Neb -maat - Re).

Legend

Prädynastik

Early Dynastic period

Old Kingdom

First Intermediate Period

Middle Kingdom

Second Intermediate Period

The order in the 13th Dynasty to Merkaure Sobekhotep follows the Turin Royal Canon. Thereafter, this papyrus is very fragmentary and all classifications to the end of the 17th dynasty are highly speculative.

New Kingdom

Third Intermediate Period

Late Period

Greek - Roman period

de