Dahshur (Arabic دهشور, DMG Dahšūr ) denotes an ancient Egyptian pyramids and burial ground of the Old and Middle Kingdom. It is named after the nearby villages of Dahshur Dahshur and Minschat and lies about 26 kilometers south of Giza on the west bank of the Nile, in the province of al - Giza. The necropolis extends three kilometers in north-south direction and extends from the fertile lands to 1.5 kilometers deep into the desert.
The necropolis was the southern boundary of the first nome of Lower Egypt. The ancient Egyptian name was possibly iu Sneferu ( "Island of Sneferu " ) and immersed in the story of Sinuhe on. The modern name is derived from the Greek name Ταχυρις ( Coptic ⲧ ⲁ ϩ ϭ ⲟ ⲩ ⲣ ).
Tombs of the Kings
On the rocky plateau of Dahshur pyramid has five plants in the 4th to 13th dynasty. King Sneferu was the first king to build two large pyramids. In the southwest of the area, the Bent Pyramid is a south adjacent satellite pyramid and a sacrificial site on the east side. From the pyramid bent causeway leads to the cultivated land, half its length there is a temple for the king cult. The associated valley temple of the pyramid complex is suspected in the cultivated land. The second pyramid of Sneferu ( Red Pyramid ) located two kilometers further north and is in the lower third or partly covered by sand. The plants belonging to two pyramid pyramid city lies to the east of the Red Pyramid at the village Shinbab in fruit land and bore the name chaj - Sneferu.
With the transfer of the royal cemetery to Giza after the death of Snefru Dahshur lost its importance. The exercise of the royal mortuary cult remained, however, exist in the pyramid city. From the time of Pepi I ( 6th Dynasty ) a decree is handed down, after which the priesthood of duties and taxes was free.
Red Pyramid of Sneferu ( 4th dynasty )
Amenemhet - III.- pyramid (12th dynasty )
Sesostris - III.- pyramid (12th dynasty )
The climb to the royal building site only succeeded once again in the 12th Dynasty, as well Dahshur was not far from the new royal residence Itj - taui. Amenemhet II built 1.2 kilometers east of the Red Pyramid a limestone pyramid ( White Pyramid ) build. The corresponding pyramid District contains graves of his family and his court, including the double grave of his daughters Ita and Chnumit with unique jewelry finds. In the northeast, the terrain is heavily decayed Sesostris - III.- pyramid. The corresponding district includes four side graves with other major jewelry finds. In the southwest corner of archaeologists discovered three boats from cedar wood and remnants of other boats. The brick core of the pyramid of Amenemhet III. ( Black Pyramid ) is found in the southeast corner of the cemetery. Since the king was buried in his second pyramid at Hawara, they probably served only as a sham grave.
During the 13th Dynasty king Hor Autibre I was north of the Black pyramid for himself and his daughter Nebuhetepichered create a common grave. Around the same time came in 1957 discovered severely damaged ameni - Qemau pyramid.
Several stelae with votive inscriptions indicate that during the Middle Kingdom, the cult of the deified Sneferu flourished at the mortuary temple of the Bent Pyramid. The cult was practiced as late as the New Kingdom. The place remained significant until the Late Period.
- Bent Pyramid of Sneferu
- Red Pyramid of Sneferu
- Lepsius -L- pyramid
- Amenemhet II - pyramid
- Amenemhet - III.- pyramid
- Sesostris - III.- pyramid
- Ameni - Qemau Pyramid
- Pyramid of Dahshur Central
- Süddahschur -A- pyramid
- Süddahschur -B - pyramid
- THE 46
- THE 49
- THE 50
- THE 51
- THE 53
The private cemeteries developed in Dahshur same time as the king pyramids. From the time of Sneferu a burial group is southeast of the pyramid of Sesostris III. testified. Some sons of Sneferu ( Kanefer, Quedschepses and Neferhersnofru ) could be buried north of the White Pyramid in Mastabagräbern. Among the significant mastabas from the 6th Dynasty include the graves of Seschemnefer and Snofruiniischetef whose extensive grave paintings are now in Cairo, and also the tombs of Nianchsnofru and Seanchwati. Another cemetery of the 4th to the 6th Dynasty ( with graves of Iinefer and Duare ) is located on the southeastern edge of the site. From the 5th dynasty a single mastaba originates east of the Red Pyramid.
In the Middle Kingdom, it came to the installation of cemeteries in the far northeast. These have strikingly small mastabas on with carefully crafted coffin chambers and stone sarcophagi. Significantly, among other things, the grave of the pyramid of Amenemhet II Saisis south Following a rest period at the time of the New Kingdom it was forced back in the late period of the isolated complex of tombs. A Greco- Roman cemetery was built around the pyramid of Sesostris III.
The exploration of Daschur is first handed down by Arab geographers who were interested mainly for the treasure troves of the cemetery. The first description of a European comes from Egypt traveler Richard Melton, who in 1660 - as well as Richard Pococke beginning of the 18th century - first devoted only the Bent Pyramid. John Shae Perring explored in 1837 the Red Pyramid. More systematic work was carried out 1842/43 under Karl Richard Lepsius and 1882 under the direction of Flinders Petrie.
First excavations on a large scale took place towards the end of the 19th century by Jacques de Morgan. He dug at the three pyramids of the Middle and Beamtennekropolen the Old and Middle Kingdom. De Morgan was next to all pyramids ungeplünderte tombs of princesses, some of which still contained rich jewelry.
In the early 1950s put Ahmed Fakhry together with Herbert Ricke the total complex of the Bent Pyramid free. 1973 could be cleared more than 350 graves in the north of the area in rescue excavations of antiquities administration. Since the 1970s, the adjoining Dahshur desert area was largely restricted military zone, so that archaeological research were not long. This has changed in the last few years. As a result, there are now numerous excavation teams.
Today in Dahshur, the German Archaeological Institute ( Cairo Department ) at the pyramid complex of Amenemhat II and the causeway of the Bent Pyramid, the Metropolitan Museum of Art at the pyramid of Sesostris III. and the Waseda University in Dahshur North of tombs of the New Kingdom.