Unas was the ninth and last king ( pharaoh ) of ancient Egyptian 5th Dynasty the Old Kingdom. He reigned about 2380-2350 BC
Origin and family
In the pyramid texts of Unas and his parents are called Heliopolitan, it being noted in addition for Unas, " was also born there " that he. He probably came not from a royal home, which was also true of his two wives and Nebet Chenut. The name of his eldest son is not recorded, even his second son Unasanch died before his father. His daughters were Hemetre ( Hemi ), Sescheschet Idut, Chentkaus and later the wife of King Teti II, Iput I, may also Neferetkaus and Neferut.
The exact duration of Unas government there is great uncertainty. After the New Kingdom | New Kingdom resulting Royal Canon of Turin he has ruled for 30 years. The 3rd century BC Egyptian priest Manetho indicates living 33 years. While some researchers such as Winfried Barta and Thomas Schneider kept this information to be plausible, others were of a significantly lower number of years of. So take about Jürgen von Beckerath only 20 at. The contemporary Dates bring little clarity, because very few are obtained, which can be assigned to the reign of Unas clearly. The highest safe assignable date is an "8 Time of the census. " This originally introduced as Horus conduct a census of cattle is meant for the purpose of tax collection. Furthermore, there is the mention of a " 11 Again, the count, "which is assigned to either Unas or its predecessor Djedkare. Certain problems brings the circumstance with that these counts originally held every two years found ( that is, an "x -th year of the count " followed by a " year after the umpteenth time of the census " ), but later partly also annually could take place (on an "x -th year of the count " was followed by the "y -th year of the count "). Even with a regular two-yearly census, the dates obtained were talking but rather for a government period of about 20 years or less, but not of 30 years or more. For this fit, the investigations of the tomb of the official Nikauisesi at Saqqara. This began his career under Unas ' predecessor Djedkare and died during the reign of his successor Teti. An anthropological examination of his skeleton showed an age of death of 40 to 45 years, which also argues against a thirty -year reign of Unas.
A campaign in the region of Retjenu is documented.
Also Unas ' viziers are known by name: Nefer - sechem - sechat, Inefret, Ihi and possibly Nianchba, Achti - hotep and the end of his reign Kagemni.
The fragment of a biography of an official seems to tell of Elephantine on the transport of granite pillars for the pyramid temple of the ruler within four days.
→ Main article: Unas Pyramid
In Saqqara, just south of the pyramid of Djoser and the Unas pyramid, in which the King's body was buried is. The compartments inside are first provided with pyramid texts, which consist of spells and incantations for the hereafter, and they are considered the oldest religious texts Ancient Egypt. Later dynasties have adopted the texts in differentiated form, partly they were written also as the Egyptian Book of the Dead on papyrus and added to the mummies.
In the pyramid complex are also the mastabas of the royal consorts Nebet and Chenut.
Despite the heavy destruction of the pyramid structure, the interior of the pyramid is well preserved.