Surat ( Gujarati: સુરત, Surat ) is a city in the state of Gujarat in India, located on the Gulf of Khambhat near the mouth of the Tapti. She has 4.5 million inhabitants ( 2011 census ) and is a center for the production of textiles, carpets, gold and silver threads, seaport, and cultural center with a university, theaters, museums and galleries.
92% of all gem diamonds in the world are ground here.
1194 is the town of General Qutb -ud -din Aibak ( 1150-1210 ), founder of the Sultanate of Delhi, conquered. 1373 plunder the troops of Muhammad bin Tughluq ( 1290-1351 ), Sultan of Delhi, the place. 1512 take the Portuguese Surat one, loot and burn down the village. 1576 Akbar conquered the Kingdom of Gujarat and thus will Surat an important port city of the Mughal Empire. The Europeans who visit the city in the 17th century, featuring a multi-ethnic and multi-religious image of the trading city (eg Jürgen Andersen, Jean -Baptiste Tavernier, Thomas Roe, Johann Albrecht von Mandelslo ), but were also impressed by the Management and the military system of the Mughal Empire. After British ships in November 1612 defeated the Portuguese in the Battle of Suvali (north of Surat ) and their maritime dominance had broken, the East India Company founded the first trading office in India in the place. 1664 Surat is conquered and plundered by Shivaji Marathenführer. Until 1687 the East India Company had its headquarters in Surat, after which it shifted its focus to Bombay. From 1667 to 1759 there was also a trading post in Surat by the French East India Company.
Since the 16th century, the port of Surat took a leading position as a transit point for goods in India. Only in the 19th century took over the city located south of Surat Bombay because of the presence there more modern port facilities much of the trading activities.
1796, the city had about 800,000 inhabitants. 1860, the station was opened in Surat. By connecting to the railway network of the country the development of the city boomed and the population grew significantly.
Since the 1947 Surat is part of independent India.
A plague epidemic occurred from August to October in 1994 in Surat. The WHO counted 6,344 suspected cases of plague and 56 deaths 234 proven. The be discovered in plague pathogen had it been on yet observed properties. He distinguished himself by a weak virulence and is due to some molecular biological features as a novel strain of agent.