Template: Infobox several high-level roads / maintenance / AU -M
New South Wales
The Sydney Harbour Tunnel is a spacious double road tunnel under the Sydney Harbour in the east of the Australian state of New South Wales. It connects the Cahill Expressway in Sydney's city center with the Warringah Freeway at North Sydney. He runs parallel to the Sydney Harbour Bridge and relieves them from traffic.
The Sydney Harbour Tunnel leads to running in a tunnel at the western edge of the Botanical Garden Cahill Expressway ( Met- 1) continuing to the north, where it turns west to Circular Quay and changes in high position. West beneath the Sydney Opera House he leads under the Port Jackson through to North Sydney. There he runs into the Warringah Freeway one (Met -1).
The tunnel extends at an angle of approximately 30 ° to the Sydney Harbour Bridge just in North-South direction. It has four lanes. 2008 90.000 vehicles were counted daily, which passed the tunnel.
The tunnel consists of three sections, a 900 m long, double- sized tunnel on the north shore of the harbor, a 400 m long, double- sized tunnel on the south bank of the port, and a 960 m long immersed tunnel in between. The height difference between the lowest point of the tunnel, 25 meters below the harbor, to the north exit is about 55 mm, the southern exit to about 35 m.
The immersed tunnel consists of eight pre-cast concrete sections. These precast concrete parts were more than 100 km from Sydney produced in a casting basin in Port Kembla and then towed to the port of Sydney. Before the arrival of concrete parts were dug a trench in the tunnel sections were then lowered. After installation of the sections of the trench was back filled and sealed at the top with rock slabs, which are intended to protect the tunnel against shipwrecks and torn anchor.
The underground tunnel pieces at the two ends were created in a combination of push technology and classical tunneling. The entire tunnel cost AU $ 554.25 million and is expected to withstand both earthquakes and sinking ships.
One of the northern pillar of the Sydney Harbour Bridge was modified to create an outlet for the ventilation of the tunnel. More Entlüftungsein inputs and outputs are hidden behind groups of bushes in Bradfield Park at the north end of the bridge.
Fresh air is drawn from an underground fan station on the north shore of the harbor and pushed in all sections of the tunnel. For 14 axial fans with 2.5 m diameter in use. The ventilation fans are 16, of which eight are housed in the two northern pillars of the Sydney Harbour Bridge. You can promote up to 1,500 m³ / s, which is a complete change of air in the tunnel every 2 min. corresponds .. In an emergency all fans can run in the same direction and remove smoke from the tunnel. Each of the fans promotes 53-103 m³ / s The fans were especially subjected to intensive testing.
On August 30, 1992, the tunnel was opened for one day for pedestrians. The income from the sale of tickets was the Royal Institute of Deaf and Blind Children donated. The next day, the tunnel was opened to traffic.
The Sydney Harbour tunnel is being built and operated in partnership between the Government of New South Wales and by tender selected private investors. Transfield Pty. Ltd.. and Kunagai Gumi formed a 50/50-Joint-Venture that built the tunnel and a contract for the operation from 1992 to 2023, including maintenance and the right of toll collection has. As a result of 1997, of dividing the values of Transfield and the creation of Tenix the rights and duties for the operation of the tunnel in the remaining 30 years in the ratio 50 % ( Kumagai Guni ) were 25% ( Transfield ) and 25 % ( Tenix ) divided. At the end of the contract in June 2023, the tunnel falls to the state of New South Wales.
Against the construction contract with Transfield there were many skeptical voices after other projects of the group - even those with Absenktunneln - had shown structural problems that led to the leak.
2006, the government of New South Wales announced that the cash toll collection should end up on the streets of Sydney by 2010. In July 2007 at the Sydney Harbour Tunnel a fully electronic toll collection system, corresponding to those introduced at the Westlink, at the Lane Cove Tunnel and the Cross City Tunnel. This measure has the traffic congestion caused by the toll stations, significantly restricted, which simplified the use of the tunnel and the users saved time. Since 2009 there is a variable toll of between AU $ 2.50 and AU $ 4.00, depending on the time of day. The toll is levied at the southern entrance to the tunnel.
Intersections and connections
External links and sources
- Webcam at the Sydney Harbour Tunnel, Südzufahrt. RTA
- Cory, WT W ( Bill): Fans & ventilation: a practical guide (), Elsevier in association with Roles & Assoc, Amsterdam; Boston 2005, ISBN 0-08-044626-4, p 424
- Pratley, Juliet: Sydney Harbour Tunnel, 15 1993, pp. 19-23.
- Steve Parish: Australian Touring Atlas. Steve Parish Publishing. Archerfield QLD 2007 ISBN. 978-1-74193-232-4. Page 21 22