Symphony No. 8 (Mozart)

The Symphony in D major Köchelverzeichnis 48 composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in 1768 in Vienna. After the Old Mozart Edition, the symphony has the number 8


The autograph is dated December 13, 1768. Thus, the symphony was Köchelverzeichnis (KV) 48 probably after the concert on December 7, 1768 (at which, inter alia, the Mass, K. 139, the Offertory KV 47b and a trumpet concerto, K. had been performed 47c ) and just before the departure of Vienna completed to Salzburg. The return of Mozart in Salzburg was already overdue and Leopold Mozart become canceled content, as the father of 48 wrote the day after the date of KV in a letter to a friend on 14 December 1768

" As much as I gewunschen and hoped on the day Consecrations S: Being r to high threading tail Lichen grace in Salzburg, so it was impossible by not more our thing could bring to an end, so I had beeyfert me. But we are still in front of the Weynacht Feyertagen start from here ... "

What was the cause for the delayed return to Salzburg, as well as the composition occasion of KV 48 ( for a private client, the farewell concert in Vienna or for a planned immediately after returning to Salzburg Concert ) unknown.

About the Music

Instrumentation: two oboes, two horns in D, two trumpets in D, timpani, two violins, viola, cello, bass. In contemporary orchestras, it was also common, even without separate listing bassoon and harpsichord (if available in the orchestra ) to reinforce the bass line or use as continuo.

Duration: about 15 minutes

In the terms used here based on the sonata form is considered that this scheme was designed in the first half of the 19th century (see below) and therefore 48 can be transferred only with restrictions on the Symphony KV. - Note that this description and structure of sentences is to be understood as a suggestion. Depending on your view, other accruals and interpretations are possible.

First movement: Allegro

D major, 3/4-time, 93 cycles

Set opens with a motif of alternating games played on the Piano Forte and dotted half notes, in large intervals ( fourth - None - fifth) stride down to the subdominant G major. Hermann Abert (1955 ) refers to this as " campaign issue ". As a contrasting postscript follows a troubled sixteenth - figure. In total eight-bar theme, a circumferential two and a half octaves, is already within the first six bars housed (a similar structure, the beginning of the first movement of the symphony KV 74g on ). The Fort spin drying of the input motif modulates the double dominant E major ( bar 13, dominatrix matic effect for the following A- flat major ), now with even larger interval steps ( twelfth up and down ).

After the brief dialogue between the strings and the oboe ( " meek ​​oboe figure" ), which is repeated echo-like in a minor key, is in bar 18 a transitory flow of rapid sixteenth notes in the violins (from Abert (1955 ) as the second topic considered ) interrupted only once by two quarter breaks (cycle 21, " dramatic silence "). The first part of the sentence ( " exposure " ) ends in measure 33 with the short -circuit group.

The " implementation " begins as exposure to the main topic, but changes in the repetition of the opening motif of A- flat major to F #, and then in an extended passage with the dialog strings - to oboes on B major, A major and G major modulate. The " Reprise" begins in measure 60 with the main theme in the tonic key of D major. In repeating the initial motif are now entering - a further increase - again larger interval jumps ( over two octaves ) on; this passage is also extended at the expense of dialogue motif. The rest of the course the recapitulation corresponds structurally to the exposure. Both phrases are repeated.

Second movement: Andante

G Major, 2/4-cycle, 45 cycles

The Andante is written for strings and stands up on some accents throughout the piano. It is based on two themes / motifs, the first (bars 1-6 ) by a sanglich - song -like melody, the second (cycle 7-16 ) is characterized by larger interval jumps and some suggestions. In two subjects occurs as a unifying element a crescendo tone sequence in parallel run on strings ( bars 3 and 13 ). The first part ends in measure 16 on the dominant of D major.

However, first in D major, then in E minor (bars 22 ff ) and then performs a motif octave jump from the second topic in the circle of fifths downward over A: The second part ( bar 17 ff ) uses the first theme again -, D, G, and C major. In bar 36 begins the second theme in the tonic G major. Both phrases are repeated.

Third movement: Menuetto

D major, 3/4-time, 24 32 bars

Minuet and Trio are each based on two contrasting motives:

  • In festive and pompous minuet are slow - border district ( with " reverb " on the stressed chord to the first beat ) fast sixteenth-note runs opposite;
  • Trio ( G major, without trumpets and timpani) a forte unison figure with dotted rhythm on the one hand, a lyrical motif in the piano on the other.

Neal Zaslaw (1988 ) says that in the minuet " very beautiful the courtly flaunts captured (be ), so to speak, the used the minuets of contemporary Viennese symphonies after the Apollonian slow movement as a springboard into the Dionysian final."

Fourth proposition: Molto allegro

D major, 12/8-Takt, 58 cycles

The head of the first theme consists of the alternation of loud forte blow and a " echo " in the Piano (similar to the beginning of the minuet ). Follows on this first phrase of symmetrically structured, eight-bar theme as the second phrase a continuous quaver figure in the violins. This is then imitative spun out in virtuosic runs of the violins and gives the whole set of the Clean Sweep character of a gigue. The second theme (bar 12-16) in the dominant A major the violins play a dance- bouncing figure, accompanied by bottoming bass and the sustained E of the horn. By the end of the exposition in bar 29 represents the whole orchestra in Forte under the steady, pounding eighth notes then two small motifs in front, the first is first performed fallacy like to F minor ( bar 20 ). The exposition ends after noisy Akkordmelodik surprisingly with a phrase in the piano.

The second part of the sentence consists of the modified end of the first with the first theme in A major, then swings shortly after B Minor, and then again return to the tonic D major. Both phrases are repeated.

Volker Scherliess (2005 ) thinks that the phrase " with his hectic vibrant triplet in a kind of " baroque unit waste " ( runs ) as his Mozart occasionally takes over later ( as in the final of symphonies K. 133 and K. 338 ). " A final phrase in the piano uses Mozart, for example, in the last movement of the symphony KV 202

References, notes

Web links, notes

  • 8th Symphony (Mozart): Score and critical report in the New Mozart Edition
  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Sinfonia in Do, K. 48 PR 782, Ricordi publishing house, Milan, 1955 ( pocket score ).