Toluca on the map of México
Toluca (official name: Toluca de Lerdo ) is the capital of the central Mexican state of México and the homonymous municipality Toluca.
Geography and climate
The rapidly growing state capital of Toluca counted 489 333 inhabitants in 2010. Toluca is located about 65 km southwest of Mexico City in Matlatzinco valley on the River Lerma at an altitude of 2,638 m. The metropolitan area of Toluca de Lerdo, the Zona Metropolitana del Valle de Toluca, where over one million people, is one of the major urban areas of Mexico.
Due to the large amount is the local climate temperate subhumid ( semi - moist) with an annual average temperature of 13.5 ° C and an average annual rainfall of 737.6 mm. In winter, frost can occur.
The city's name derives from the Nahuatl name Tollocan from whose formation can be explained as follows: basic word Tolin, " rush ", supplemented by the assimilated Nonimalsuffix yo ', an adjectival meaning, and the Lokativsuffix can. The meaning is " place with lots of rushes ." The colonial settlement Toluca was founded by European missionaries in the early 16th century. During the colonial period, the city developed into an important trading center for agricultural products from the region.
Politics and Administration
Mayor of Toluca is in the current legislature Martha Hilda González Calderón.
The city is also the seat of government of the State of México.
Toluca has since 1979 with the Japanese city of Saitama twinned.
Economy and Transport
The past few decades have been in Toluca, like many places in Mexico, characterized by a rapid transformation of the economic structure is still going - away from a heavy based on traditional agricultural and craft economy to a modern industrial and service society. Today in Toluca numerous national and international corporations are established, as their production focus, for example, Chrysler Mexico, General Motors and Nestlé, Henkel, Bosch and Bayer AG, on four major industrial parks. Within the city limits of Toluca today 1.2 % of Mexico 's gross domestic product and 12.5 % of the economic output of the state of México are earned.
Toluca is linked by a highway with Mexico City and Guadalajara and has an international airport (Toluca airport).
Culture and sights
Toluca has with his Twelve museums, two theaters and more than 20 movie theaters, a rich cultural and leisure activities. In the concert hall Sala Felipe Villanueva place every Friday classical concerts of the Orquesta Sinfónica del Estado de México instead. The large ensemble is one of the best orchestras in the country and has been celebrated internationally. One of the most famous sights in Toluca is the botanical garden. The botanical garden told in stained- glass windows, which are among the largest in the world, the origin and the downfall of man. The botanical garden is located in the city center of Toluca. Other major attractions include, without limitation going back to the 16th century old town, the cathedral and the many markets is offered on including traditional arts and crafts of the Indian population. For this purpose, among others, which is adjacent to Toluca in the southeast community Metepec is known with a high cultural and artistic offer.
Located near Toluca de Lerdos archaeological zone of Calixtlahuaca with ruins, which have, among other Toltec influences, is the most important pre-Columbian monument of Toluca. Not far from Toluca, still located in the municipal area, there is the volcano Nevado de Toluca or in Nahuatl Xinantécatl. The volcano, which has been inactive for a long time, has a height of about 4650 m.
Education center in Toluca is the Tecnológico de Monterrey ( both University and College). The campus is equipped with the latest technology. There, for example, various components for DaimlerChrysler were developed. Every fall, the campus of a UN meeting for students instead of ( TOLMUN ).
The Club Deportivo Toluca plays in the Mexican soccer league and has its home in the more than 30,000 people comprehensive Bombonera in the city center.
Sons and daughters of the town
- Adriana Barraza ( born 1956 ), actress
- Ramón Martínez Torres (* 1924), architect
- Javier Lozano Barragán, Cardinal and President of the Pontifical Council for Pastoral Assistance to Health Care Workers
- Otto von Herff, German physician and professor (1856-1916)
- Carlos Zepeda, (* 1986), better known and successful architect, artist and musician