Transcription (music)

Transcription (Latin trans - scribere, rewrite ) is understood in musicology, recording of meaningful musical ideas, sound events, or already notated music in a modified or other symbolic form.

May therefore be different meant by transcription:

  • The definition of a musical notation to another, for example, the handle notation for the guitar in the five line system. This is also known as trans- notation.
  • The transfer of acoustically perceived music into a music notation, for example, of ethno- musical sound and music recordings, jazz improvisations - or of performances by artists who have not mastered musical notation itself. Example, it was Anton Karas, the composer of the film music for The Third Man not notation - the printed version of the notes was transcribed from his zither.
  • The transmission of a work by a cast in a different, usually by a large cast for a minor or for a solo instrument.

The transformation as a piano piece to an orchestral version is called " orchestrate " or or " orchestrate " Instrumentation and Orchestration. In the field of blues, jazz, rock and pop music, and folk music to calls this an " arrange " and the result of the Arrangement.

Transcriptions in music history

Transcriptions in music of the Baroque

, - Except in virtuoso solo parts - instrument-specific effects are not so frequently used in the music of the Baroque were Therefore, it was usually easy to arrange a work for other instruments and therefore often occurred. Already Johann Sebastian Bach edited foreign and their own creations for new occupations. During his sixteen concertos for solo harpsichord ( BWV 972-987 ) is, for example, works of other composers - six of these concerts are from Antonio Vivaldi, others by Benedetto Marcello and Georg Philipp Telemann.

Even among Bach's concertos for harpsichord and orchestra, there are many transcriptions. Thus, the harpsichord concertos in D major and G minor edits his well-known violin concertos. Conversely, thanks to these transfers were also lost early versions are reconstructed - a well-known example is his Concerto for Violin and Oboe, which was reconstructed from a Concerto for Two Harpsichords in C minor, BWV 1060.

In Leipzig Bach had initially no performance opportunity for instrumental concerts incurred in Weimar and Köthen. So he used them in his cantatas: Sometimes unchanged as instrumental introductions, but often he composed more added instrumental parts or voices. Thus, the Sinfonia of the Cantata We thank you, God, we thank you BWV 29 is a reworking of the " Preludio " from the Partita in E major for solo violin BWV 1006. The violin part here takes on the organ, and an extensive symphonic orchestra of strings, oboes, three trumpets and timpani was added to the composition.

Even George Frideric Handel edited his own works for new occupations. The most famous transcription is the Organ Concerto No. 13 " The Cuckoo and the Nightingale " (HWV 295 ). The two outer movements is the trio sonata for two violins and basso continuo op.5 No.6 in F major is based. The second and third set serves as a template, the Concerto grosso Op.6 No.9 in F major. The cuckoo votes in the second sentence of the organ concerto Handel is said to have the organ piece " Capriccio sopra il cucu " by Johann Caspar von Kerll inspired.

Transcriptions in the music of the Classical

By Joseph Haydn exists an authentic piano version of the 2nd movement of the Emperor Quartet, titled Variations on the hymn " God Save ".

Even the nine- year-old Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart transferred sonatas by Johann Christian Bach concertos for piano, two violins and bass KV 107 Moreover taught Mozart fugues from Bach 's piano cycle "The Well-Tempered Clavier " for String Trio (K. 404a ) and for string quartet ( K. 405 ) one.

Ludwig van Beethoven worked his Violin Concerto in D major, Op 61 for the pianist Muzio Clementi to a piano concert at. He inserted a cadence with a Timpani solo in the first movement and dedicated the concert to the wife of his friend Stephan von Breuning, the highly musical Julie, born Vering.

Transcriptions of classical music playing in a subordinate role. In contrast, the composers engage with their variations on songs or opera melodies foreign composers back very often.

Transcriptions of the music of Romanticism

Carl Maria von Weber's " Invitation to the Dance " is originally a piano piece in D major. However, the transfer of the piano piece enjoys an orchestral piece by Hector Berlioz and Felix von Weingartner by the splendor of the many timbres much greater popularity than Weber's original.

With Franz Liszt joined not only a brilliant virtuoso, but also an agent of many foreign and own works in the public. He introduced in 1830 the term transcription for piano transmissions, which "stand" " between a more or less stringent processing and a free " Fantasy ( Raabe cited in Brockhaus - Riemann ). He put his transcriptions for romance virtuoso cope. Transcriptions are in the works Liszt own work group, which he here between edits, fantasies, reminiscences; Illustrations, paraphrases and transcriptions of piano arrangements differ. So he transferred organ works of Bach, the. Nine Beethoven symphonies, songs by Beethoven, Schubert, Mendelssohn -Bartholdy, etc. and opera melodies by Auber, Bellini, Donizetti, Mozart, Verdi, Wagner, etc. for the piano A particularly ingenious transcription is the first Mephisto Waltz from his own orchestral score "Episodes from Lenau's Faust" a virtuoso piano piece.

Johannes Brahms for piano edited two pieces for solo violin by Johann Sebastian Bach: The Presto from the G minor Sonata and the Chaconne from the Partita in D minor. As a bonus, once served often Brahmsche editing a Gavotte from Christoph Willibald Gluck's " Paris and Helen ". As Opus 56b Brahms was composed for the orchestra Variations on a Theme by Haydn out in a version for two pianos.

Edvard Grieg self-created piano reductions of his two Peer Gynt Suites. The composition " Wedding Day at Troldhaugen " he wrote, both as a piano or as an orchestral piece. Modest Mussorgsky wrote his " Pictures at an Exhibition " as a piano cycle. Very colorful and nuanced is the orchestration of this composition by Maurice Ravel. In the concert hall today heard both versions.

Transcriptions in music of the 20th century

Around the turn of the century Ferruccio Busoni was an important representative of transcription. In his " Sketch of a New Aesthetic of Music ", he writes about this musical genre: " Transcription: currently a fairly misunderstood, almost shameful term The frequent opposition, caused the often unreasonable criticism in me, led me to try, on this point clarity. to win What I think is finally over: .. every notation is already Transcription of an abstract incidence with the moment when the spring taken possession of him, the thought already losing its original form the intention to write down the idea requires the choice of time signature and. Key. molding and sound resources, for which the composer has to decide, determine more and more the way and the boundaries. It is similar with man. Naked and born with yet undetermined inclinations, he decides or it is in a given. moment for decision driven to choose a career loves the incident or the people some originals, which is indestructible, continue to exist: they 're the type of a class herabgedrückt.Der incident becomes a sonata or a concerto, a man becomes a soldier or priest. The st an arrangement of the original. From this first to a second transcription of the step is relatively short and unimportant. But will generally be made ​​only from the second canceling. This one overlooks the fact that the original version of a Transcription not destroyed, so a loss this is not created by those. Also, the presentation of a work is a transcription, and this can also - he may yet so free never behave the original from the world create. - For the musical work of art stands in front of his sounding, and after it vorübergeklungen, whole and intact there. It is at the same time in and out of time, and its essence is there that can give us a tangible idea of the otherwise incomprehensible notion of the ideality of time. Moreover, most composers Beethoven Piano Transcriptions as the orchestra seem to, most of Schumann's orchestral works such as transfers from the piano - and have it in a certain way. "

Busoni transferred mainly produce various works of Bach on the piano: significance is the transfer of the Chaconne in D minor for solo violin on the piano. In most edits but is organ works: So he transferred Chorale Preludes, the Prelude and Fugue in D major BWV 532, and the Orgeltoccaten C major and D minor, BWV 564/565. Busoni developed in these works much ingenuity to transfer the organ sound on the piano and organ stop imitating. In addition to Bach Busoni wrote Piano Transcriptions on compositions by Goldmark, Liszt, Mendelssohn, Mozart and Offenbach.

The " Trois Movements de Petrouchka " for piano by Igor Stravinsky are one of the hardest and most virtuosic works of the piano literature. This transcription is based on the first conception of the work: Here " Petrushka " was originally intended as a concertante piece for piano and orchestra. Here is the piano " represent a suddenly gifted with life puppet, which irritates the orchestra with diabolical horns, while the orchestra responds with threat of fanfare. " Sergei Diaghilev took up the idea immediately and persuaded Stravinsky to turn it into a ballet. It remained for the piano only episodes as an orchestral solo instrument. Stravinsky composed the Piano Transcription in 1921 and dedicated it to the pianist Arthur Rubinstein. The first set is the "Russian Dance ". In the second sentence "Chez Petrouchka " can Stravinsky's notion of the keyboard instrument must clearly show: C major to F-sharp major, white against black keys. The third movement, " La semaine grasse " presents to the players especially high demands on its Sprug and stroke technique. For the notation of the last sentence Stravinsky uses up to four systems.

The composers of the Second Viennese School written transcriptions on works of earlier composers. So Arnold Schoenberg transferred waltz by Johann Strauss ( son ) for interesting and unusual chamber music ensembles: the waltz " Lagoon Waltz " and " Roses from the South " worked Schoenberg harmonium, piano and string quartet, the " Emperor Waltz " for flute, clarinet, piano and String Quartet. A serenade by Schubert transcribed Schoenberg for clarinet, mandolin, guitar and string quartet. The serenade D 889 he worked for voice, clarinet, bassoon, mandolin, guitar and string quartet.

Anton von Webern transferred by Johann Sebastian Bach, the Ricercata a 6 voci from the " Musical Offering " for orchestra. He looked at Bach's work from the perspective of his own stylistics and based on strict motivic structure. He chipped the neuntaktige fugue theme on three instruments. During the twelve themes tips may change the instrument groupings, depending on the tone of voice, but not the outline structure of the fugue subject.

Automatic music transcription

Since the end of the 20th century, researchers are examining the world with the opportunities to teach the transcribing music the computer. Automatic music transcription is an application of Music Information Retrieval. Here, many algorithms for instrument separation, cycle detection, melody and harmony recognition are linked.

To be solved sub-problems ask the following panes:

  • Note initial recognition (English Onset Detector)
  • Rhythmic analysis ( time signature, beat, note types )
  • Pitch recognition (English Pitch Estimation ) unanimously ( monophonic )
  • Polyphonic ( polyphonic)

In Germany, employ different universities and colleges, and the Fraunhofer Institute for Digital Media Technology ( Semantic Music Technologies) with the field of research.

Meanwhile, commercial software is available, which is extracted from ingested clay material called metadata, thereby providing the user with semi-automatic transcription. Semiautomatic because often manual corrections or additional information fields are mandatory.

In addition to the above-mentioned stand-alone programs, some sequencers, including Cubase ( Vari - Audio), functions dominate for converting audio to MIDI. Further, there are VST plugins, which on individual tasks, eg have transcribing percussion specialized.