The plant genus swallow Wurzen ( Vincetoxicum ) belongs to the subfamily milkweed plants ( Asclepiadoideae ) in the family of the dogbane family ( Apocynaceae ). The botanical genus name is derived from the Latin words for vinci win, defeat and toxicum for poison now, this refers to the purported effects of the vegetable juice as an antidote against snake venoms.
- 4.1 Notes and references
Vincetoxicum species grow as little branched rarely shrubs, mostly subshrubs or perennial herbaceous plants, erect or climbing grow independently and (rarely to 200) reach stature heights of 40 to 100 cm. Many species form rhizomes as outlasting. The plants contain a colorless milky sap. Even with the woody species most of the aboveground plant parts is usually for just one year and hairless hairy until fluffy.
The mostly opposite arranged leaves are stalked at least briefly. The simple, herbaceous to papery leaf blades are ovate to somewhat heart-shaped, 5-10 cm long and 2-8 cm wide. The leaf margins are ciliate.
Inflorescences and flowers
The springing in the internodes, sometimes paired, total branched inflorescences are usually shorter than the related leaves and composed of differently constructed part inflorescences; they comprise 5 to 20 flowers. Blütenstandsschäfte and flower stalks are about the same length and both hairy either smooth or downy.
The usually relatively small, radial symmetry, hermaphrodite, five petals contain nectar. The five monochrome yellowish cream-colored to purple -brown sepals have a length of 2.5 to 6 mm and have grown to more than half of their length. The calyx tube is longer than the corolla tube. The Corolla lobe are spread to bent back. The deformed from staminal and interstaminalen parts, fleshy corona is at most equal to the short -stalked up sitting " Gynostegium ". The colors of the corona range from white to ivory to yellow and pink to purple. The staminal are longer and thicker than the interstaminalen parts. The hanging pollinia are oval to spherical or oblong. The cream-colored or green scar head is flat to be highlighted.
Fruit and seeds
Most produced only one follicle per flower, but they are upright, horizontal hanging up often paired together. The hairless, light brown follicles have a length of 6 to 9 cm and a diameter of 5 to 8 mm, are spindle - shaped and pencil, wingless and longitudinally grooved with a schnabeligen tip, with thin pericarp. The light to medium brown seeds are ovoid, 4-8 mm long, 2.5 to 3.5 mm wide and have at the edges 0.2 to 0.3 mm wing with a smooth edge and Flight hair. As diaspore seeds and dissemination are carried by the wind.
Ingredients and chromosome numbers
They contain alkaloids, Seco and Disecopregnane. The base chromosome number is n = 11
Systematics and distribution
The genus Vincetoxicum comes only in the Old World before in many parts of Eurasia. They thrive depending on the type of sunny forest edges, in xerophytic vegetation, dry areas of Central Asia, rocky slopes, ravines or steppes.
The genus name Vincetoxicum was first published in 1776 by Nathanael Matthew Wolf in Genera Plantarum, p 130. The publication of Thomas Walter in Flora Caroliniana, secundum ..., 13, pp. 104 was only 1788. Vincetoxicum type species is hirundinaria Medik ..
The genus belongs to the subtribe Vincetoxicum Tylophorinae ( K.Schum. ) Songs from the tribe Asclepiadeae in the subfamily Asclepiadoideae within the family Apocynaceae. Sometimes all types sect as a section Cynanchum. Vincetoxicum (Wolf) Tsiang & PTLi placed in the genus Cynanchum L.. Vincetoxicum is closest with Tylophora R.Br. related. Synonyms for Vincetoxicum Wolf are: Alexitoxicon St. lag, Antitoxicum Pobed, Pentabothra Hook.. . f, Pycnostelma Bunge ex Decne.
There are about 20 to 40 Vincetoxicum types:
- Vincetoxicum amplexicaule sieve. & Zucc. Thrives on mountain slopes, grassland and coastal dunes at elevations between 0 and 1000 meters in China, Japan and Korea.
- Vincetoxicum arnottianum ( Wight ) Wight: It occurs only in Hazara in western Pakistan and Kashmir.
- Vincetoxicum atratum ( Bunge) C.Morren & Decne. It is widely used in China, Japan, Korea and eastern Russia.
- Vincetoxicum canescens ( Wind. ) Decne. It occurs in the Himalayan region.
- Vincetoxicum cardiostephanum ( Ind. f ) f Rech: It occurs only in Afghanistan and in the Kurram Valley in Pakistan.
- Vincetoxicum chekiangense ( M.Cheng ) CYWu & DZLi: It thrives in moist thickets and valleys in the Chinese provinces of Guangdong, Henan, Hubei, Hunan and Zhejiang.
- Vincetoxicum creticum Browicz: The home is Crete.
- Vincetoxicum forrestii ( Schltr. ) CYWu & DZLi: It grows on alpine areas, savannas and wet meadows at altitudes between 1000 and 5000 meters in the Chinese provinces of Gansu, Guizhou, Sichuan, Xizang and Yunnan.
- Vincetoxicum funebre Boiss. & Kotschy: they spread in the Caucasus and northern Iran.
- White swallow-wort or Common milkweed ( Vincetoxicum hirundinaria Medik, Syn. Vincetoxicum Asclepias L., Cynanchum Vincetoxicum (L. ) Pers, Vincetoxicum officinale Moench. ): This species is widespread in Eurasia, especially on calcareous soils. In North America, she is a neophyte.
- Vincetoxicum inamoenum Maxim. It is widely used in China, Japan, Korea and Russia.
- Vincetoxicum mongolicum Maxim. Thrives in the mountains and sand areas at altitudes 0-3000 meters in the Chinese provinces of Gansu, Hebei, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shanxi and Sichuan.
- Vincetoxicum pycnostelma Kitag.
- Vincetoxicum rossicum ( Kleopow ) Barbar.
- Vincetoxicum sakesarense Ali & S. Khatoon: This endemic species is known only from its type location in the Sakesar hills in the Pakistani district Sargodha.
- Vincetoxicum sibiricum (L.) Decne.
- Vincetoxicum stauntonii ( Decne. ) CYWu & DZLi: It is native to the low to medium altitudes in China.
- Vincetoxicum stocksii Ali & Khatoon: It is endemic to Baluchistan.
- Vincetoxicum thesioides Freyn: It is widely used in high altitudes 0-3000 meters in China, Kazakhstan, Korea, Mongolia and Russia.
- Vincetoxicum versicolor ( Bunge) Decne. Thrives in bushes and along rivers at altitudes 0-800 meters in the Chinese provinces of Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jilin, Liaoning, Shandong, Sichuan and Zhejiang.
No longer belong to this genus:
- Vincetoxicum alabamense Vail → Matelea alabamensis ( Vail ) Woodson
- Vincetoxicum gonocarpos Walter → Gonolobus suberosus (L.) R.Br.
- Vincetoxicum leptocladum Decne. → Metastelma leptocladum ( Decne. ) Schltr.
- Vincetoxicum petiolare ( A. Gray ) Standlschmaus. → Gonolobus petiolaris A.Gray
The medical effects of some types were investigated. Note: most parts of plants of many species are poisonous.
- Sigrid songs Schumann, Ulrich Meve: The Genera of Asclepiadoideae, Secamonoideae and Periplocoideae ( Apocynaceae ). 2006: The genus Vincetoxicum - Online at INTKEY databases of the DELTA system. (Section Description and systematics)
- S. I. Ali: Vincetoxicum. in the Flora of Pakistan: Online. (Section Description and systematics)
- Sigrid songs Schumann: The genera Cynanchum L. and Vincetoxicum Wolf ( Apocynaceae - Asclepiadoideae ) in Malesia. In: Blumea. 44, 1999, pp. 471-495.
- M. Endress, Sigrid songs Schumann, Ulrich Meve: Advances in Apocynaceae: the enlightenment, an introduction. In: Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 94 (2 ), 2007, pp. 259-267.
- Sigrid songs Schumann: Cynanchum - Rhodostegiella - Vincetoxicum - Tylophora: new considerations on an old problem-. In: taxon. 45 (2 ), 1996, pp. 193-211.