The Vltava river in Prague
History and catchment area of Moldova
Template: Infobox River / Obsolete
The Moldau ( Czech Vltava pronunciation / i, historically Wulda - from the Germanic wilth - ahwa, which translates as " wild, raging water " means ), also referred to as the "Bohemian sea ", is the longest river in the Czech Republic and the largest tributary of the Elbe. It is 440 km long and drains an area of 28,000 km ² with an average of 151 m³ / s at the mouth. The Vltava River is the confluence with the Elbe longer and richer in water than this and thus represents represents the main hydrological flow of the Elbe river system
The Moldau is not to be confused with the river of the same ( German ) name in northeastern Romania, according to which, inter alia, the official German name for the Republic of Moldova Moldovan State derives.
The Vltava River rises in two source rivers: the Warm Vltava near Aussergefild ( Kvilda ) in the Bohemian Forest to the north of Lusen; and the Cold Vltava near Haidmuehle in the Bavarian Forest, at Haide Lost slope, where they can also accommodate small inflows from Bavaria. The small Moldova ( Vltavský creek ) is right-side tributary of the Vltava River, but is not counted to the headwaters. The Grassy Vltava ( Řasnice ) is a tributary of the Warm Vltava.
Headwaters in the Bohemian Forest
At the confluence of Warm and Cold Vltava south of Chlum ( Humwald ), a district of Volary ( Wallern ), the former is much larger. Like the Warm Vltava River above the confluence of the Vltava now oriented to the southeast. The young river flows strongly Some kilometers meandering through a relatively flat, forested valley before it is jammed in the 48 km long Lipno Reservoir for the first time. Below the dam the valley has a different character, it is usually quite deep and has narrow floodplains and steep slopes on. The proportion of forest remains very high. The Vltava river passes through the city Vyšší Brod ( Hohenfurth ) and changes gradually its direction to the north. This direction will retain coarse for their entire further course. Next, the river passes through the town of Český Krumlov ( Cesky Krumlov Cesky Krumlov or ) and flows over deep under the Dívčí Kámen (castle Maidstein ). In this area, the valley is very tortuous. Before the city of České Budějovice or ( Bohemian ) Budweis Moldavia leaves the Bohemian Forest.
From Budweis to the mouth of Berounka
To Budweis, where the Vltava river receives the waters of the Maltsch, the valley widens considerably, but shows further below anew quite narrow, steep, tortuous continue with mostly high forest proportions. Below Tyn nad Vltavou opens in Neznašov from the right Lainsitz be the first of its four largest tributaries. Soon after the Vltava river in the 68 -kilometer-long reservoir area of Orlik Dam occurs before left the Otava flows, which has its origins also in the Bohemian Forest. In Slapy Reservoir Moldavia is dammed again over dozens of kilometers. A few miles below the dam were once the famous and also infamous St. John rapids ( svatojánské proudy ), which Bedřich Smetana had set a musical monument. She sank with the construction of Štechovice Dam. In the stagnation region of a further dam the island of Saint Kilian lies with the remains of the monastery Insulation in the river. Immediately after that first flows from the right Sázava as the third among the four major tributaries one before the Vltava River enters the Prague metropolitan area. There she receives the Berounka, its largest tributary.
The now become a mighty river had grown Moldova now flows through the center of town, where it offers incomparable scenes along with the countless attractions of the city. Even before the river leaves the city, its valley is again relatively closely with sometimes steep valley walls before it significantly expands Vltavou before the city Kralupy nad. Mělníka finally the Vltava River empties into the right coming, smaller Elbe. This gives the impression so far, to be the main river, as they already above the mouth has a wider valley and the direction of flow By while the Vltava River at the mouth makes a significant left-hander.
A navigable canal ( the shipping canal Vraňany - Hořín ) branches a few kilometers from above the mouth of the river Vltava and opens almost immediately after the Vltava River in the Elbe.
Uses of the river
Except for sections in the upper Vltava river in Oberplan ( Horni Plana ) and to Budweis and Prague, it flows through a narrow valley usually. Previously ruled there brisk rafting and water tourism. From 1936 onwards, but mainly between the years 1954 and 1962, resulted in several reservoirs, such as the Lipno lake and the Orlik dam, giving a total length of 190 km the river a completely different character. They are referred to as reservoirs Vltava cascade. Installed in the hydropower plants total capacity of 700 MW is used predominantly short-term to cover the peak load. From the penultimate barrage around 20 km above the Vltava River Prague is navigable.
- Lake Lipno
- Hydro plant Lipno II
- Dam Hněvkovice
- Hydropower plant Kořensko
- Orlik Dam
- Hydropower plant Kamýk
- Dam Slapy
- Hydropower plant Štechovice
- Hydropower plant Vrané
Along the Vltava leads the Vltava River Bike Trail, which passes in Melnik in the Elbe Cycle Route. The Vltava River in the region of Český Krumlov is also a center of the Czech Republic very popular canoeing sport, especially canoeing hiking.
One of the reasons for the construction of several large dams on the Vltava river, the devastating damage that has been done in his flooding the river and despite the barrages still does. Unprecedented is so far the flood of the Vltava River in 2002. During the average flow in Prague about 150 m³ / s, the flow was at the flood peak at 5300 m³ / s estimated. Due to the flood of Moldova, Elbe and its tributaries in the Czech Republic lost 17 people their lives in the Prague zoo drowned an elephant. The damage is estimated at 3.3 billion euros ( more details in the article Elbe flood 2002).
Musical notation by Bedřich Smetana
The passage of Moldova provided the template for the same ( and most famous ) romantic symphonic poem Vltava from the cycle My Country ( Má Vlast ) by Bedřich Smetana. Smetana represents, among other, the two sources of the Vltava River, its course through the Bohemian countryside, the thundering water in the now sunken St. John rapids, the wide bottom of Moldova, its course at Vyšehrad passing through Prague and its confluence with the Elbe. Likewise Smetana absorbs the surrounding river culture reference; as well as hunting and a peasant wedding are presented.
From Štechovice dam jammed Moldova
Moldova at the Charles Bridge
Ferry across the Vltava Mělníka
Lock on the Vltava channel
The Vltava river channel Vraňany - Hořín Mělníka