Voskhod [ vʌsxɔt ] (alternative spelling Voskhod, Russian Восход = sunrise, English Voskhod ) is a Soviet rocket, which is one of the successor to the R-7.
Voskhod ( GRAU index 11A57 ) was developed from the Vostok rocket, by the third stage of Vostok ( Blok E) by a larger and more powerful third stage ( Blok I) was replaced. The stage was driven by a 0110 - RD- engine, which used the Kerosinart RP -1, and liquid oxygen (LOX ) as fuel. Previously, this level was tested in 1960 in the Molniya rocket. Through the use of the larger third stage, the payload capacity of the Voskhod ( payload capacity of the Vostok was 4730 kg ) increased to 6300 kg into low-Earth orbit. The rocket was about 45 m high and had a launch mass of 298,400 kg.
The first launch of a Voskhod was held on November 16, 1963 held in Baikonur, which launched a military reconnaissance spacecraft of the zenith into orbit. On October 14, 1964 Voskhod rocket launched the first three-seat spacecraft Voskhod 1 Since then, the Voskhod was started more than 300 times, the last flight was on 29 June 1976. Thereafter, the Voskhod was replaced by the slightly stronger Soyuz rocket.
On November 1, 1963, a rocket under the name Poljot (Russian Полёт for flight, GREY index 11A59 ) was launched from Baikonur, which consisted of the first two stages of the Voskhod and no upper mitführte. With this rocket, a prototype of the satellites of the ASAT program ( destruction of enemy satellites using killer satellites ) was launched, which also bore the name Poljot. On April 12, 1962, the second and last flight of the rocket Poljot followed. The satellites of the ASAT program were started later with cyclone missile.