Voskhod (spacecraft)

Voskhod [ vasxɔt ] (alternative spelling Voskhod, Russian Восход " sunrise " ) was the successor of the Vostok flights as part of the Soviet space flights of the early 1960s. It was built by OKB -1 Korolyov (experimental design bureau -1, RKK Energia today ) was developed.

The goal was to beat the U.S. in the propaganda race in outer space: first flew with a Voskhod spacecraft more than a pilot into orbit. Even before the first start of the Gemini program promoted the Soviet Union three man into space. And in shirt sleeves: For space reasons, the cosmonauts could not wear pressure suits, which should pretend the West a security of the spaceship. In the second Voskhod - flight for the first time succeeded in a spacewalk (EVA). Again, the Soviets were able to outflank the Americans a few weeks.

The Voskhod spacecraft was a converted Vostok spacecraft essentially. Improvements to the R-7 rocket allowed the transport of incurred Voskhod rocket a higher payload. This could carry the much heavier Voskhod spacecraft, the rocket. There was an additional solid braking rocket to the top of the spaceship. The ejection seat was removed in favor of up to three beds. These were offset from the previous model by 90 degrees, so the space could be better used. However, the instruments retained their original place, so that the crew had to turn his head to the side constantly. At least with the manual landing procedure of the flight of Voskhod 2, should be adversely affected. While the version " 3KV " was scheduled for three cosmonauts, offered the version " 3KD " two cosmonauts space. This version also has decreed a deployable air lock, which enabled the exit into the vacuum and was jettisoned after use.

When the landing procedures of the Vostok spacecraft cosmonauts were catapulted to the opening of the main screen in about seven kilometers height from the capsule and landed with a parachute. Of course two or three ejector seats could not be accommodated in the Voskhod space ships to space and weight reasons. The crew was forced to land on board. To ensure the soft landing of the relatively heavy spaceships, solid braking rockets were used in addition to the main screen.

The Voskhod program

There were two manned flights performed before each an unmanned test flight with a spaceship of the same configuration.

Performed Flights

  • Cosmos 47 ( on October 6, 1964): was an unmanned test flight
  • Voskhod 1 (Start on October 12, 1964): First flight of manned with the cosmonauts Vladimir Komarov, Boris Yegorov and Konstantin Feoktistow
  • Cosmos 57 (Start on February 22, 1965): failed unmanned test flight
  • Voskhod 2 ( starting on March 18, 1965): Pavel Belyayev and Alexei flight Leonov, who conducted the first spacewalk.
  • Kosmos 110 (Start on February 22, 1966): 22 -day long-duration flight with the dogs " Veterok " and " Ugolyok "

A manned long-duration flight with Voskhod 3, was carried out for the cosmos than 110 test flight was indeed planned, but has been postponed again and again, without ever being canceled. Finally, all the forces were concentrated on the new Sojusprogramm.

Non -operated flights

  • Voskhod 3: 19-day mission for studies on the effects of long-term stay in zero gravity on the human body
  • Voskhod 4: 20- day mission
  • Voskhod 5: a 10- day mission with a female crew
  • Voskhod 6: test flight to test a control belt for spacewalks
  • Voskhod 7: simulation of artificial gravity by connecting to the third stage of the rocket and rotation of the whole complex