Common bugloss ( Anchusa officinalis)

The plant genus ox tongues ( Anchusa ) belongs to the family of Boraginaceae ( Boraginaceae ). The 30 to 50 species are mainly in the Mediterranean area home. In the rest of Europe, western Asia, North and South Africa before species.

  • 2.1 subgenera with remaining in the genus Anchusa species
  • 2.2 species that have been found in recent works in other genres


Vegetative characteristics

Anchusa species grow as single-, two-year to perennial herbaceous plants. The roots and underground shoot parts contain alkannin (also called Anchusin ), one also with other Raublattgewächsen ( Alkanna, Echium, Lithospermum, Onosma ) contained red to violet dye. The hair is usually rough or rare soft -fitting. The change-constant leaves are simple.

Generative features

The terminal, zymösen inflorescences contain bracts. The hermaphrodite, five petals are radial symmetry to slightly zygomorphic. The five sepals are fused in the lower third or on the ground; they are sometimes slightly enlarged in fruit ripening. The blue to purple or yellow petals are united at the base to a straight to curved tube; the throat appendages are scaly or papillose and short haired. The five wheel-shaped to bell-shaped corolla lobes protruding are equal or unequal. It's just a circle with five stamens present; they are adherent to the corolla tube in their half or less, and they do not extend beyond the crown. The stamens are short and the anthers are ovate - oblong. Two carpels are fused into a superior ovaries; it is divided by false septa in four Klausen. The stylus does not extend beyond the crown, ending in a capitate, two-piece scar.

Are formed Klaus fruits that seeded in four disintegrate nutty Klausen. The Klausen are straight, kidney-shaped or ovate wrong and have a netzrunzelige surface; approach the scar is located on the ground or in the vicinity and has an annular thickened and hardened edge.

The basic chromosome number of x = 8, in Anchusa Thessala but only x = 6


The genus Anchusa S. L. is monophyletic according to molecular genetic studies; in addition it was necessary some smaller genera ( Gastrocotyle, Phyllocara ) split off or spin off some species existing in other genera. The s.str in the genus Anchusa. remaining species are divided into five subgenera, their distribution is also advocated because they are paraphyletic. Based on this classification are primarily fruit characteristics. The subspecies listed in some species were often performed in older literature as a species. Overall, there are about 30 to 50 Anchusa species:

Subgenera with remaining in the genus Anchusa species

  • Anchusa subgenus Anchusa: This subgenus includes biennial or perennial plants. The pharyngeal appendages are bent inward. The Klaus fruits are cross - ovate with pendant, blunt beak. Anchusa affinis R.Br.: The homeland is the Arabian Peninsula and tropical Africa.
  • Anchusa calcarea Boiss. The home is Portugal and Spain.
  • Anchusa capellii Moris: The home is Sardinia.
  • African bugloss ( Anchusa capensis Thunb. ): The home is South Africa and Namibia.
  • Anchusa cespitosa Lam. The home is Crete.
  • Anchusa crispa Viv. The home is Corsica and Sardinia.
  • Anchusa davidovii Stoj. The home is Bulgaria.
  • Anchusa formosa Selvi, Bigazzi & Bacchante. The home is Sardinia.
  • Anchusa gmelinii Ledeb.
  • Anchusa leptophylla Roem. & Schult. The home is South-East Europe, the Aegean and the Near East.
  • Anchusa leucantha Selvi & Bigazzi: The home is Greece.
  • Anchusa littorea Moris: The home is Sardinia.
  • Anchusa montelinasana Angius, Pontecorvo & Selvi: The home is Sardinia.
  • Pale yellow ox tongue ( Anchusa ochroleuca M.Bieb. )
  • Common bugloss ( Anchusa officinalis L.)
  • Anchusa popovii ( Guşul. ) Dobrocz.
  • Anchusa procera Better
  • Anchusa riparia DC. The home is South Africa.
  • Anchusa samothracica Bigazzi & Selvi: The home is the Greek island of Samothrace.
  • Anchusa sardoa ( Illario ) Bigazzi & Selvi: The home is Sardinia.
  • Anchusa undulata L.; with the subspecies: Anchusa undulata subsp. atlantica (Ball) Brown - Blanqu. & Maire ( syn. Anchusa atlantica Ball, Anchusa mairei Guşul, Anchusa pseudogranatensis ( Braun-Blanq. & Maire ) Sennen & Mauricio. ): The home is Morocco.
  • Anchusa undulata subsp. granatensis ( Boiss. ) Valdés ( syn. Anchusa subglabra Caballero ): The home is the southwestern and southern Iberian Peninsula.
  • Anchusa undulata subsp. hybrida ( Ten. ) Beg. ( Syn. Anchusa hybrida Ten. ): The home is the central and eastern Mediterranean.
  • Anchusa undulata subsp. lamprocarpa Br.-Bl. & Maire: The home is Morocco.
  • Anchusa undulata subsp. sartorii ( Guşul. ) Selvi & Bigazzi ( syn. Anchusa sartorii Guşul, Anchusa macrosyrinx Rech et seq. ): The home is Greece.
  • Anchusa undulata subsp. undulata: The home is the Iberian Peninsula; there are known individual finds in Greece.
  • Anchusa subgenus Buglossum ( Gaertn. ) Guşul: . These sub- genus includes perennial plants. The pharyngeal appendages are upright and are covered with club-shaped trichomes. The Klaus fruits are erect, oblong, very large and rounded at the tip. Italian bugloss ( Anchusa azurea Mill, syn. Anchusa italica Retz. ): Used as an ornamental plant.
  • Anchusa strigosa Banks & Solander
  • Anchusa subgenus Buglossoides ( Rchb. ) Guşul: . These sub- genus includes annuals. The pharyngeal appendages are bent outward. The Klaus fruits are almost upright with a sharp, almost vertical beak and a strongly thickened ring. Anchusa aegyptiaca (L.) A.DC.
  • Anchusa Iranica Rech.f. & Esfand.
  • Anchusa milleri Sprengel
  • Anchusa puechii Valdés: The home is Spain.
  • Anchusa subgenus Buglossellum Guşul: . These sub- genus includes annuals. The pharyngeal appendages are bent inward. The Klaus fruits are almost upright or cross- ovate with pendant, blunt beak. Anchusa pusilla Guşul.
  • . Anchusa stylosa M.Bieb: The home is South East Europe and Turkey; with the subspecies: Anchusa stylosa subsp. spruneri ( Boiss. ) Selvi & Bigazzi ( syn. Anchusa spruneri Boiss. )
  • Anchusa stylosa subsp. stylosa
  • Anchusa subgenus limbata Chamb. & RRMill: This subgenus includes two perennials. The coronary band is strongly shortened, the throat appendages are upright. The Klaus fruits are cross - ovate with side constantly, blunt beak. The only kind: Anchusa limbata Boiss. & Heldr. A Lokalendemit of southwestern Anatolia, known only from a single locality.
  • Without assignment to a genus: Anchusa tiberiadis Post: The home is Israel, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria.

Species that have been found in recent works in other genres

The following species are now assigned to other genera:

  • Anchusella Bigazzi, et al.: Anchusella cretica (Mill.) Bigazzi, E.Nardi & Selvi ( syn. Anchusa cretica million )
  • Anchusella variegata (L.) Bigazzi, E.Nardi & Selvi ( syn. Anchusa variegata (L.) clay. )
  • Cynoglottis barrelieri ( All. ) Vural & Kit Tan subsp. barrelieri ( syn. Anchusa barrelieri ( All. ) Vitman )
  • Cynoglottis barrelieri subsp. serpentinicola ( Ind. f ) Vural & Kit Tan ( syn. Anchusa serpentinicola Rech f )
  • Cynoglottis chetikiana Vural & Kit Tan
  • Gastrocotyle hispida ( Forssk. ) Bunge ( syn. Anchusa hispida Forssk. )
  • Gastrocotyle macedonica ( Degen & Dörfl. ) Bigazzi, Hilger & Selvi ( syn. Anchusa macedonica Degen & Dörfler )
  • Hormuzakia aggregata ( Lehm. ) Guşul. ( Syn. Anchusa aggregata clay. )
  • Acker Krumm neck ( Lycopsis arvensis L., Syn: Anchusa arvensis (L.) M.Bieb. )
  • Lycopsis orientalis L. ( syn. Anchusa ovata Lehmann, Anchusa orientalis (L.) Rchb non L. ).
  • Pentaglottis sempervirens (L.) LHBailey ( syn. Anchusa sempervirens L.)
  • Phyllocara aucheri ( A.DC. ) Guşul. ( Syn. Anchusa aucheri A.DC. ): It is an annual species in Anatolia.


  • Gelin Zhu, Harald Riedl, Rudolf V. camel: Anchusa. In: Wu Zheng -yi, Peter H. Raven (eds.): Flora of China. Volume 16: Gentianaceae through Boraginaceae, Science Press / Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing / St. Louis 1995, ISBN 0-915279-33-9, p 358, online.
  • J. Nasir Yasin: Anchusa In: SI Ali (eds.), J. Nasir Yasin: Flora of Pakistan 191: Boraginaceae. National Herbarium, Islamabad, among others 1989, p 78, online.