A canyon ( canyon of English; [ kɛnjən ] ) or canyon (of Spanish caño = tube; German [ kanjɔn ] or [ kanjo ː n]) is a particular kind of canyon. As a technical term, he is of German geologists used for a heavily carved valley with getreppten slopes in areas with horizontal overlying rock layers.


Canyons caused by cutting of a river in a plane which is digging himself into a long process of erosion in the plateau. It caused it outstanding cliffs because harder rock layers towards the slope erosion ( denudation ) are more resistant and they are exposed, whereas underlying softer layers are morphologically more dispelled. Due to the different hardness ultimately arise getreppte slopes. Canyons come in dry areas more frequently, because the weathering there has a lesser effect than in more humid areas, remain so as to obtain the surrounding plateaus and the walls of the canyon are not flattened. Canyons often form from resistant sandstone or granite. Particularly narrow canyons are called slot canyon, which the German term gorge is approximately, an example is the Antelope Canyon in northern Arizona.

There are also undersea canyons, typically at river mouths as undersea extension of the river.


Some in the local language, known as Canyon valley or canyon not comply with this geological definition, such as the Bryce Canyon.

Conversely, do not wear many geological Canyon Canyon or Cañón in the name, but different words for ravine in the various national languages. Even in the U.S., many are referred to as " gorges " or " ravines ".



  • Grand Canyon of the Colorado River in Arizona (USA ), the largest canyon in America
  • Antelope Canyon ( see above)
  • Canyon system of the Copper Canyon in Chihuahua State, Mexico, numerous canyons with together very large area
  • Colca Canyon in Arequipa (Peru ), especially deep
  • Discovered Cañón de Somoto in Nicaragua, in 2004 only


Several, previously little-known canyon systems are located in the Himalayas:

  • Yarlung Zangbo Canyon of the Brahmaputra River in Tibet ( PRC ), the deepest canyon in the world and slightly longer than the Colorado
  • Kali Gandaki Canyon in Nepal, the second deepest canyon in the world
  • Polarity Zangbo Canyon in Tibet, very inaccessible
  • Koprulu Kanyon National Park, Turkey



  • Verdon Gorge in France
  • Canyon of Tara in Montenegro, with up to 1300 m the deepest canyon in Europe
  • Gorges in the national park Paklenica in Croatia
  • Canyon Sautso of Altaelv in Norway.
  • Rokliny ( singular roklina ) Slovenský raj in, Slovakia
  • Canyons ( singular rokle ) in the Moravian Karst
  • Gorge of the Torrent de Pareis in Mallorca
  • Añisclo Canyon National Park Ordesa y Monte Perdido in Spain
  • Samaria Gorge in Crete
  • Ravines of the Canary Islands, just like those wadis of North Africa only after rainfall water


Canyons and gorges are other attractive tourist destinations. Just canyons in arid areas that normally little or no water will be dangerous if suddenly flooded after rains the valley of water masses and the steep valley sides offer little means of escape. So drown there always people.