Casimir II the Just
Casimir the Just (Polish Kazimierz II Sprawiedliwy, latin Kazimirus; * 1138, † May 5, 1194 in Kraków ) was Duke of Lesser Poland in Wiślica 1166 to 1173, from 1173 Duke of Lesser Poland in Sandomierz, from 1177, when Casimir II, Duke of Lesser Poland in Krakow and thereby Senior Duke of Poland, and from 1186 also duke of Mazovia and Kuyavian. He was descended from the dynasty of Piast.
Kazimir was the fifth and youngest son of Duke Bolesław III. Wrymouth and his second wife Salome von Berg. It was 1138 in the year of death of his father, was born. In his father's will, no part of the Duchy was provided for him; only after the death of the fourth brother, Henry of Sandomir, he received from the Senior Duke Bolesław IV the Kraus -haired the tiny principality Wiślica in Lesser Poland. 1177, after the expulsion of Mieszko III. by the small Polish magnate, he was appointed to the Senior Cracow throne. In order to consolidate his position of power in 1184, he made the oath of allegiance to the Emperor. 1186 succeeded Casimir, through the acquisition of Mazovia and Kuyavia to increase his power base. By a coup overthrew Mieszko III. him from the throne in 1191. This was, however, soon afterwards received by Kasimir, the help of the Kievan Rus, driven again. 1193 undertook a crusade against the pagan Kasimir Jadwinger. After a year he returned to Krakow and died unexpectedly on May 5, 1194 during a banquet.
Casimir II was married to the Ruthenian Princess Helena, and had by her two sons:
- Leszek the White
- Konrad of Mazovia
He was the progenitor of the small Polish and Kujawsko - masowschen and thus the recent line of the Piast dynasty, was descended from the later Polish King Władysław I the Elbow- in direct male line.
To him, the invention and reform of Polish language is attributed; today's Polish is mostly back to him. He is said to have spoken next to Old Russian, Old High German, Altlitauisch and Sorbian.