Chicano is a term for Mexicans living in the United States and their descendants (Mexican Americans ). They belong to the group of Hispanics or Latinos.
The term Chicano, originally used discriminatory, is relatively new and is now used by Mexican immigrants to identify their specific life situation. Probably the origin of the word lies in the period around 1930 and the following 1940s, when poor Mexican farm workers were using the bracero program used as cheap labor in the United States for field work due to an agreement between the governments of both countries.
The use of the word can be probably the first to demonstrate in the fields in California. The corruption of the self- designation of the workers as " Mexicanos " can be seen in the context of regional peculiarities of the pronunciation of immigrants: The "x" is used as a sibilant, located between "sh" and "ch" pronounced, that sounds something like "Me - chi -ka- noss ". As a dirty word in the English adaptation to " Chicanos " shortened it is picked up by Mexican activists in the civil rights movement in the 1960s and 1970s to confidently point out an independent Mexican-American cultural identity.
The coinage of the term by opposition political activities leads to a negative connotation with those who are trying to ensure a smooth adaptation to the American Way of Life.
As a Chicano literature ( in engl. Chicano literature ) the whole narrative or lyrical works is understood to be caused by writers who see themselves as members of the Chicano community. One of the main authors include Rudolfo Anaya, Américo Paredes, Rodolfo Gonzales, Rafael C. Castillo, Julian S. Garcia, Gary Soto, Oscar Zeta Acosta, Luis Valdez, John Rechy, Luis Omar Salinas, Tino Villanueva, Denise Chavez, Daniel Olivas, Benjamin Alire Saenz, Tomás Rivera, Luis Alberto Urrea, Lorna Dee Cervantes, Sergio Troncoso, Rigoberto González, Rolando Hinojosa and Alicia Gaspar de Alba.
Chicana literature is a part of Chiceno literature, in particular, to highlight the experiences of female members of the Chicano communities. María Ruiz de Burton was in 1872 the first Mexican-American author who published in English. The literary critic Claudia Sadowski -Smith, the author Sandra Cisneros referred to as probably the most well-known Chicana writer and, granted her the first Mexican-American author who has been published by one of the major U.S. publishing houses a role as a pioneer. Cisneros 's first novel The House on Mango Street was published in 1989 in the first Arte Público Press small publishing house in 1989, which was oriented with its publishing program to a reading public with Latin American roots. The second edition, however, was released in 1991 by Vintage Books, a publishing house within the Random House Group. 1991 was published directly Woman Hollering Creek by Random House. As Cisneros ' biographer whole notes, there were up to this time only male Chicano authors who were successfully switched to one of the big publishers. The fact that Cisneros 's first novel attracted so much attention that a publishers like Vintage Books took him, illustrates the increasing importance of Chicano literature within the American literary scene.
In an interview on National Public Radio Cisneros said on 19 September 1991.
" I think I can not be happy if I 'm the only one that will be published by Random House when so many other great writers - both Latinos and Latinas and Chicanas or Chicanos - is that in the U.S. not of great be published publishing houses or these are not even known. If my success would mean that publishers again a second look at these writers - and then run these in significant numbers, then we will finally arrive in this country. "
Under Chicano Cinema (German Chicano cinema ) is the totality of the cinematographic production by a director who sees himself as a member of the Chicano community. This technique produced films featuring the history of ideas during the Chicano Movement, mirrored in the medium of film, after. This can be understood as a continuum that moves from one pole of the resistance and Isolationsbestrebung or enhanced assimilation and closer to the Anglo- American culture. The final phase will be increasingly accompanied by criticism from the proponents of cultural autonomy. The described transformation can be observed both on the basis of thematic, as well as the film- aesthetic development of the Chicano Cinema over the years, in the form of a shift to proven strategies and optics of Hollywood cinema.
Examples of these development
- Political resistance and search for his aesthetics:
I am Joaquín. Gov. Luis Valdez. Rodolfo Gonzalez scripts. In 1969.
- Following the Hollywood formula:
La Bamba. Gov. Luis Valdez. Perfs. Lou Diamond Phillips, Esai Morales. Columbia Pictures, 1983.
Chicano rock is a stylistically open form of rock music that is since the mid-1950s played by the Mexican -born population of the United States of America. The ethnic origin of the musicians is the connecting main feature of the Chicano rock artists counted. The regional focus of the scene is the greater Los Angeles area with a concentration on the East Side of the city. Time of Chicano rock has several highlights, the show stylistically influenced by the neighboring musical trends of each decade. Prominent representatives of the Chicano Rocks Richie Valens are, Linda Ronstadt, Carlos Santana and Los Lobos.